Class Notes (839,091)
Canada (511,184)
York University (35,583)
Social Science (3,019)
SOSC 1130 (72)
Awalou O (6)

Lecture 3

6 Pages

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1130
Awalou O

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Lecture 4 Creating a Nation: National Policies and Labour Migration, 1867-1914 The Creation of Canada  Canada did not exist as it was prior to settlement  Canada had to be created out of a territory of First Nations o It had to be created economically, politically and culturally o The process of creating Canada continues; creation and recreation  There were three interrelated policies in the period following confederation in 1867 that the government thought was important for development o Protective tariffs o Western settlement o Transcontinental railways  All three poliies were linked to the government’s plan to hire immigrants o Immigration has been an issue of national concern and it has always been related to Canada’s vision or project of development as a nation state  Protective tarrifs were referred to as the national policy by the government at the time o It was an attempt to create a strong manufacturing base in Canada o The policy involved taxing immigrants to protect the local industry o The local industry was still in its infancy and it needed protection o It is related to a model of industrialization called Import Institution Industrialization (ISI0  Produces locally comodiiesthat it used to import  For a country to develop a strong industry base, it has to protect its industry  These taxes are meant to be a temporary measure just to help the industry take off  Once it becomes stronger and can compete with commodities outside, they can be removed  For the Canadian governmet, Western settlement was of the upmost importance o Our founding fathers had a vision of a untied Canada from the pacifc to the atlantic o It was more of a dream than a reality in 1867 o One of the imoportant taks that John A Macodnald faced was bringing all of the provinces into confederation o The dream of a united country from east to west was threatened by the imperialist ambitions of the United States  They had an eye on Western Canada which was a deep founded fear because they were expanding their frontier  They wanted to populate the West as soon as possible to make it part of Canada’s vision o The Dominion’s Land Act was a means to provide land to settlers and the reserve system and Indian Act were mechansims used to disposses them and give their land to settlers  The government aim for development was a trans railway to link Canada internally o Communications within the earlier colonial period were not important within Canada o There were few internal links connecting Canada together except for the fur trade o Colonies exist to serve the needs of the colonial power and links were created between local regions and the Mother country to exchange wealth o Canada had ambitions to become one Canada and needed communication to build the nation  It is important for settlement, economic activity, culture, sense of identity, etc.  The need to develop an industrial base, the need to link by railways, and the need to settle the west developed an immigration framework o The first immigration act was passed in 1869 o Canada not only opened the door to immigrants but also courted immigrants o The government established a network of agents abroad to attract them to Canada o Their explicit aim was to target farmers with income, domestics, and labourers o Canada used advertising and recruitment (ex: editorials, encouragement for settlers to tell individuals to immigrate)  Initially, populating the West was difficult and it didn’t work immediately o There was a world economic recession from 1870s to 1890s and the price of grain fell o There was competition from the United States  Better farming conditions, stronger industrial base  In the late 1890s, recruiting immigrants became successful o On the one hand, there were population increases in Eastern and Southern Europe and land clearance, ethnic and racial tensions o On the other hand, Canada’s economic conditions had improved at the end of the 1890s and had better strains of wheat as well as better technology for the Prairies  The American frontier was drying up because there was only so much land to take over and did not have much land to offer settlers  The key to national prosperity was to recruit agriculturalists to settle the west o Their development project included developing internal linkages between agricultural industry and commerce and to become self-sufficient o They called protective tariffs the national policy in order to develop o Canada wanted agriculturalists regardless of their ethnic origin  The good quality of immigrants were not British; they were from Central and Eastern Europe  Many came from Europe and also from the States who were Canadians returning and also Europeans who had settled in the United States  British home children were orphans who were brought to provide cheap farm labour and domestic labour within homes  The 1869 Act was revised in 1906 and 1910 o The 1906 and 1910 revisions placed some restrictions on immigration  The 1906 provided a definition of immigrant and excluded a number of people (ex: prostitutes, insane, epileptic, contagious disease, dead, blind, etc.)  It allowed for the deportation of immigrants who had become unemployed or who had gone to jail  The 1910 Act restricted immigration and introduced a new measure which allowed cabinet the discretion of the government to regulate immigration on the basis of ethnic origin or the occupation  It also allowed deportations based on political or moral unsuitability  There were diverse social reactions to immigration and pressures conditioning immigration policies o Government’s rationale was to raise capital in Canada  The conditions and wages of immigrant workers meant raising capital was very difficult  There was tension between State’s vision of wanting agriculturalists and needing to build industry o Businesses wanted a steady stream of labourers to build railroad and to work in mines  Priva
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