1. Immigration Case Study: The Gradual Decline of Citizenship Rights
and Labour Conditions of Domestic Workers in Canada
- Come to Canada for some work and then go back home.
- There have been significant variations of the status and domestic
workers based on race and ethnicity;
- Regulations have increased and the pay has decreased.
a. British domestic workers as “daughters of the Empire” and
“mothers of the race” (late 1800s and early 1900s)
- Domestic workers tended to be white Canadian women
- Rural communities; work done by single women, and were
treated reasonable well
- Filling domestic work and labor gaps
- Daughters of the empires and mothers of the race
- Who were the women? Generally working class women who had
no other options in Britain. Or polished gentle women
- Fairly poorly paid and subject to a great deal of work; quite
privileged compared to the ones came later.
- Gov’t paid for the women to come to Canada and set them up
with the family; easy to move into other lines of work; citizenship
was easy to secure, but the demand for domestic workers
exceeded the supply.
b. continental European domestic workers (early 1890s to WW II)
- scanadvains: almost as good as British.
- Eased their travel over.
- Finland supplied large number of domestic workers.
- Their white privilege allowed them to access things.
- Central and eastern European workers: had to pay their own fair
over to Canada. - Some Italians came but the gov’t tried to discourage them; only
because they were seen as not white enough.
c. black domestic workers (mostly from the Caribbean, late 1950s
- there was a shortage!
- White Domestic workers could not be found
- Bring highly educated Carrabin women to work in