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SOSC 1350 (235)

Aboriginal 2 and Immigration 1

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Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES (PART 2) Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. —Rudyard Kipling, “White Man’s Burden” (1899) I believe the conditions are being deliberately created in our residential schools to spread infectious diseases. [...] The mortality rate in the schools often exceeds fifty percent. This is a national crime. —Dr. Peter Bryce, The Story of A National Crime: Being An Appeal for Justice for the Indians of Canada, 1907-1921 (1922) B: Colonialism, Sexism and the Law 1. Royal Proclamation of 1763 a. came about after the fall of New France b. forbad white settlement beyond a “proclamation line” c. the Crown must formally extinguish Aboriginal rights; private interests could not do so d. negotiations for the surrender of “Indian title” had to occur at an open assembly with the full consent of all people e. did not establish Aboriginal rights in North America; but (as decided in R. v. Guerin in 1984) it did assume their existence 2. Act for the Gradual Civilization of the Indian Tribes (1857) 3. Section 91(24) of the British North America Act (1867) 4. Indian Act (1876) a. not a new piece of legislation; consolidation of various existing federal and colonial statutes b. original Indian Act confined Aboriginal people to reserves c. cornerstone of colonial regulation: appropriation of Aboriginal land, destruction of Aboriginal social, political and economic systems d. Indian Act as serving to “divide and conquer” (Monture reading), and as a “civilizing” project necessitated by the so-called “white man’s burden” 5. Residential School-Related Amendments to the Indian Act a. creation of “Indian residential schools” by federal government in association with various Christian churches including Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and later United Church (1884) b. every “Indian” child between ages 7-16 required to attend residential schools (1920) c. legal guardianship of “Indian” children was principals of the residential school they attended (1933) 6. Harry Daniels et al v. Her Majesty the Queen et al (Federal Court, January 2013) C: The Genocide Question and Other Contemporary Developments 7. Canada as Genocidal Nation? a. Jeffrey Amherst and germ warfare against Mi’qmac You will do well to try to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race. —Amherst’s journal entry (1740s) a. John A. Macdonald’s polic
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