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Aboriginal 2 Immigration 1

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES (PART 2) Take up the White Man’s burden— Send forth the best ye breed— Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild— Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. —Rudyard Kipling, “White Man’s Burden” (1899) I believe the conditions are being deliberately created in our residential schools to spread infectious diseases. [...] The mortality rate in the schools often exceeds fifty percent. This is a national crime. —Dr. Peter Bryce, The Story of A National Crime: Being An Appeal for Justice for the Indians of Canada, 1907-1921 (1922) B: Colonialism, Sexism and the Law 1. Royal Proclamation of 1763 a. came about after the fall of New France -facilitated by political crisis b. forbad white settlement beyond a “proclamation line” c. the Crown must formally extinguish Aboriginal rights; private interests could not do so d. negotiations for the surrender of “Indian title” had to occur at an open assembly with the full consent of all people -everyone had to participate before their land was taken from them e. did not establish Aboriginal rights in North America; but (as decided -resulted in protected reserves, which later morphed into reservation system 2. Act for the Gradual Civilization of the Indian Tribes (1857) -much more restrictive and problematic - government wanted to restrict traditional aboriginal customs -more white settlers came from Europe Paternalism: treating someone as a child assuming you know what is best for them -started the process of segregation against the aboriginals - this act was about enfranchising aboriginal people enfranchising: the right to citizenship this was to make aboriginal peoples like other Canadians -male aboriginal peoples over the age of 21 got the right to Canadian/British citizenship and the right to vote and some land to farm if lucky - you could only use these rights to farm not to carry on any aboriginal traditions -the man had to prove he was civilized to be enfranchised -had to prove he could read,write and speak French or English. - there was a specific list of surnames to pick from -had to prove they had no debt and that they were a “sound moral” character -a clergyman had to prove that you were “sound moral” -after 3 years of proof that you were a “sound moral” character you were then considered to be enfranchised 3. Section 91(24) of the British North America Act (1867) -this gave the federal government control over the aboriginal peoples. 4. Indian Act (1876) -put together all previous laws for aboriginal people into one form of legislation -made it clear that aboriginal people were to be restricted to reservations -made it seem like the government was trying to protect the aboriginal peoples by putting them on reserves. a. not a new piece of legislation; consolidation of various existing federal and colonial statutes b. original Indian Act confined Aboriginal people to reserves c. cornerstone of colonial regulation: appropriation of Aboriginal land, destruction of Aboriginal social, political and economic systems d. Indian Act as serving to “divide and conquer” (Monture reading), and as a “civilizing” project necessitated by the so-called “white man’s burden” -easier to break a group of people up by dividing them. The indian act did this.. -aboriginal peoples were divided up into groups by reserves -dived status and non status indians -white mans burden: white people were seen as God given people and needed to “uplift” and “help” other people. Problematic -aboriginal people were seen as half devil half child -indian act allowed a lot of uncommon micromanagement 5. Residential School-Related Amendments to the Indian Act a. creation of “Indian residential schools” by federal government in association with various Christian churches including Roman Catholic, Anglican, Methodist, Presbyterian and later United Church (1884) -by 1900s residential schools were all across Canada -some were funded by the provincial government but most were ran by the federal government b. every “Indian” child between ages 7-16 required to attend residential schools (1920) c. legal guardianship of “Indian” children was principals of the residential school they attended (1933) residential schools were places the childr
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