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Jan 8th Aboriginal lecture outline .doc

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Social Science
SOSC 1350
Julie Dowsett

Please note: One sentence was cut off at the bottom of page 74 (or page 30 course kit) of the Stevenson reading. The sentence should read: “Traditional knowledge [and skills were hidden by those Aboriginal men and women who resisted total] cultural transformation.” The square bracketed text is the portion that was cut off. Please fill in your course kits accordingly! GENDER, COLONIALISM AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES (PART 1) The Canadian state itself exists on the basis of the expropriation of native land and resources, the subordination of native politics. —Ward Churchill (1947-present) • Well known for his scholarly writing about aboriginal peoples • There would be no Canada without the the subordination of aboriginal culture, law, politics, no Canada without the mass death of aboriginals During the colonial period, male authority was being encouraged by Euro- Americans in their political and military dealings with [Aboriginal peoples] at the same time [Aboriginal] women were becoming dependent in individual households on wage-earning and trading husbands. —Eleanor Leacock (1922-1987) 1. Who are We Talking About When We Talk About Aboriginal Peoples? a. “Aboriginal” is an umbrella term encompassing Inuit, Métis and First Nations -indian is a lethal category, best used “status-indian” or “indian act” -very common to hear Canadians referred to the indian as if there was one such person and as if those people lived with very similar cultural contact b. multiplicity of languages and cultural groups -60 different languages and 52 distinct cultural homes c. 79% live off-reserve; 59% in cities th -massive increase of ste second have the 20 century, and beginning of the 21 century -as of 2011, approx. 79% of aboriginal lived in off-cities d. poor conditions on reserves (epitomized by 2009 “body bag scandal”) -many reserves are characterized by poverty -many reservations don’t represent how we think of Canada -as of 2009, 116 communities received warnings that their water service are harmful, their water wasn’t drinkable -tuberculosis is 8-10 times higher on reservations because of really poor sanitary conditions -H1N1 hit aboriginal communities harder, body bag scandal… aboriginal people got little attention when they were diagnosed with the H1N1 flu, whereas other Canadians got access to vaccination -federal government tried to eliminate -one of these communities had a press conference and got a little bit of attention, did an amazing job of getting the message across 2. Review (and Expansion Upon) Previous Discussions Relating to Aboriginal Peoples a. social and economic marginalization i. average income -35-40% lower than average person ii. poverty -poorest of the poor are aboriginal women -poor than aboriginal men and poor than non-aboriginal woman iii. death rate -22-44 years of age, 5 times higher than the general rate iv. life expectancy -except to live expect 6.7 years less than aboriginal woman v. experiences with violence -mortality rate for violence is 3x more likely to die from violence than non-aboriginal woman -violence against aboriginal are not taken seriously by police, homicide b. section 12 (1)(b) of the Indian Act -aboriginal woman with indian status who married a man who is not lost her status as an indian woman, lost her rights of living on her reserve, owning property -this was problematic -indian men who married woman of non-indian status did not lose his indian status i. Jeannette Corbiere-Lavell ii. Mary Two-Axe Early’s activism -did many activism on this issue, highlighted this issue nationally iii. Sandra Lovelace at the United Nations -lost her status after marrying a man without an Indian status and wanted to move back to her reservation on new Brunswick and was prevented to do so, so she took it to the UN committee, and they denied it and ignored her case, because it’s a sovereign country and the UN has no rights to overrule what happens over here -she embarrassed Canada enough that in 1985 bill C-31 was passed and clause 4 of bill c-31 is reproduced in the experts in the Indian act iv. Bill C-31 (1985) -after bill was passed, an estimated 35,000 woman reclaimed their status post 1985 but there were severe conditions on latter generations ^ if your mother married a non-indian man, you were okay, if your great great grandmother married a non-indian man, you were out of luck -up-shot of this…100’s of 1000’s of people don’t have the indian status -many writings out there about aboriginals trying to regain their status, they need extensive documentation going back v. legacy of 12(1)(b) today - c. Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system -aboriginal people are over represented in the criminal justice i. Aboriginal inmates -ontario-7% of prison population, BC-17%, alberta-31%, Manitoba 57%, saskatchewean-73% (aboriginal people make up >10% of population) ii. rates of Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal people in custody -as a whole in Canada, % of aboriginal people is 8.5 times higher than non-aboriginal people iii. Aboriginal federal offender
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