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1430 Lecture Feb 5.doc

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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Miguel Gonzalez

SOSC1430 Lecture – Feb 5 th Last week: - Black: development is about politics, power - Power (access to resources, relationship to nature and one another; regional relations; what is dev; how it’s defined; effects on people and environment) - Technocratic knowledge transfer Today: - Efforts from ordinary citizens to challenge ideas about dev proposed by transnational institutions - VS policies of govt not in interests of poor - Challenging power relations, promote new principles and ethical ideas of dev - Agency of ordinary citizens: - Earlier against IMF, govts, corps – now same processes, diff perspectives SOCIAL MOVEMENTS - Can be both progressive and regressive – not necessarily the good guys - Reactionary and conservative (skinhead, neo-Nazis, tea-party) - “Organized collective efforts seeking to change (or to resist change in) some major aspect of society” - Enter into conflictual relations with clearly identified opponents: ex. People v. mining company, or a developer - Make collective claims, have a target and make demands on authorities or corporate actors - Share identity and goals: ex. via campesina promotes fair trade relations on behalf of peasants or Indigenous - Informal networks: boundaries sometimes fuzzy and hard to identify - Organization, resources, capacity; offices, membership - Leadership; public figure - Message – what they want to communicate/persuade to broader audience; idea, goals What SMs are not: 1 SOSC1430 Lecture – Feb 5 th - Not Humanitarian/relief assistance in dev countries; while important, no clear opponent - Not individual acts; collective affairs, ex. Ghandi inspired social movements - Not random; to be systematic they have to be purposeful and organized – engages rational actor that think through strategies to pursue - SMs raise issues, make claims, dev strategies; not spontaneous outbursts v. IMF; might encourage riot but that isn’t a social movement - Not a single event; sustained and systematic activity over time; it may change, but has some continuity - Not unified affairs; diversity of actors, goals, strategies; women’s movement, peasants movement, indigenous; diversity within ill-named “anti-globalization” movement - Coalesce around specific campaigns/voice concrete concerns - Protest coupled with proposals - Loosely organized; coalitions, networks - Fluid structures, loose membership criteria - Can join and leave What SMs do - Advocate for social change; dislike particular ways in which world is org econ, culturally, socially - Outsiders pushing new agendas - Keep reminding us of inequalities, power differences, politicizing issues - As Black mentioned – dev is about power, conflict - Attempts by disempowered to bring issues to table, force society to address them - Women’s right since 70s; ex. Reproductive rights politicized Why do SMs emerge? 2 SOSC1430 Lecture – Feb 5 th 1. Response to perceived inequalities – grievances - Thought only in particular historical movement can you find people organizing; ex. Indigenous people movements are more clearly organized lately - Mid- 90s only clear organization - Poor exist, but don’t always get organized - Revolutions not usually in poorest countries – or at least the poorest of them a. Changes in political context as positive incentive for organizing; political opportunities. Something in society might change that facilitates or inhibits rise of social movements; windows of opportunity. S. Tarrow: Contentions is more closely connected to opportunities for collective action than by persistent social or econ factors that people experience. b. What types of change makes it easier to mobilize More receptive govts Increased legitimacy Weakening of opponents New allies/partners willing to support a particular cause New resources: ex. US civil rights movement 50s/60s; particular context in US history; could find white Americans willing to join battle Perceived likelihood of success rd Decreased state repression: important in 3 world contexts (democratization) How do SMs emerge? When opportunities are seized; by sustained, collective actors/actions; forms of domination, forms of challenge Role of Leaders: - Frame issues - Identify and label opponents - Foster collectiv
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