More contemporary processes of development this semester,
First 3 weeks – define and explain what globalization is and what it means, what
changes it brought to the world?
Globalization from above (as defined by elites, capitalist etc.)
Globalization from below (as defined by the grass roots)
Jan 8 2013
End of the World War II – imp changes
1) Emergence of dev. discourse
Way of thinking about needs of some nations relations among nations
of the world. (not just about mobilizing resources but about certain
changed in values and principles, creating a new framework of
Quote of Truman 1949 inaugural address (in his summary notes)
In both the Quotations he ahs departed form imperialist and
expansionist endeavors. He feels that bringing about changed through
democratic practices is vital.
2) New International institutions
- Have a mandate/created with one to address problems of
Some continually with the discourse of colonialism e.g civilization to
Worth thinking about as we evaluate globalization, the practice and
promises of dev. Embrace the idea of democratic dealing? (In many
cases countries re under practiced of colonialism, are obliged to adopt
values of the imperialists of colonizers)
o New Framework for post WW2 relations were established and 4
new institutions were formed.
o Formations of the World bank:- with the purpose of supporting
countries in their long-term dev. plans. the main law is a world
without poverty, It was formed with the idea of providing Europe
with the technical assistance needed to recover from the world.
o Formation of the IMF:- It was assigned to offer short term
assistance to countries to avoid economic crisis. Second goal was
to lend money to countries who were in need of short term dev.
o GATT:- Substantial reduction of tariffs. It was mandated to
regulate international trade. Signed in 1947 and then lasted till
1984 and was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1985. o United Nations:- Main reason was to avoid another major world
war. Charter of Human rights. Forum for international dialogue
and understanding peace and political stability. Conceived as the
most imp of he 4 institutions. The UN today has become
increasingly less powerful then the other institutions (in economic
frameworks, which is an imp aspect in globalization)
Key idea is inter connectedness
Sense of Global citizenship (move beyond borders, being able to relate to a
Cultural Exchange (We are living a world in which cultures are diverse, we
have the options to embrace or reject what we are exposed to)
Technological and Political and Economical Changes.
There is a certain dependency created by globalization which makes the
smaller economics dependent on the bigger/more modern ones (Mexico and
USA). Economic Interdependence. (Dependency theory). The idea of
vulnerability also comes in here.
Global Village concept. A global community, intimate relations, the idea of a
o Other Manifestations
Global Interdependence, for example debates on global warmin, what other
countries do has an impact on everyone. Long term weather patterns are
altered through human activity
Flow of communication and Commodities. We can travel and communicate
Regulations of Transnational relations. State had more freedom in
establishing policies previously. Not so much anymore. This capacity had
been in a significant way eroded, erased or disappeared.
Powers of Transnational Corporations are 2 dimensional. The profits of these
countries are way larger the sometimes even an entire country
Global Cities, Hubs of communication, capital flows, not just in Europe. In the
past these capital flows happened only in countries in the north. Many
Capital and global cities are now located in the global south as well.
Western style Consumerism. Recent illustration is:- US and Canada sales over
the 2012 Xmas holiday season expected to be 632 billion dollars (13% of the
UN budget for 2012-1013). Negative effects of globalization. Control of the
movie industry. This global homogenization had lead to erase local
organizations and cultures as well.
Globalization had also been deifned as the compression of time and space.
Imp to think about MULTINATIONAL VS INTERNATIONAL
o Apply this concept to countries
Relations between nations/states. o Talk about multinational corporations (debates are happening within
the field of how to define it)
o MNC’s have operations in MANY countries
International Economy –
o Trade between nations
o Key unit is national economies
o Key players are national corporations and economies
o Regulations set up by the nation states
o Transnational economy
o Transcends the national states. They operate free and participate
inactivates that go beyond national boundaries.
o Beyond national interests
o Perhaps beyong national interests (no national loyalties). Profit
maximization, shareholder not national govt.
o Erosion of national borders and interests
o Free environment of food and services and capital across borders
o Increased Power of TNC’s and TNI’s. perhaps more imp than many of
the worlds govt.
Shift from international to global economy
o Shift in power from states to transitional institutions and corporations
o As globalization had advanced we winess a decline in the power of
govt.t o devlope their own policies for developments. Their powers
have been transerred/taken over y powerful institutions no longer
base on particular country
DEFINITION OF GLOBALIZATION FOR THE COURSE: the functiona