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Jan 8th 2013.docx

6 Pages

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1430
Miguel Gonzalez

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More contemporary processes of development this semester, First 3 weeks – define and explain what globalization is and what it means, what changes it brought to the world? Globalization from above (as defined by elites, capitalist etc.) Globalization from below (as defined by the grass roots) Jan 8 2013 2 Semester Lecture 1 End of the World War II – imp changes 1) Emergence of dev. discourse  Way of thinking about needs of some nations relations among nations of the world. (not just about mobilizing resources but about certain changed in values and principles, creating a new framework of institutions)  Quote of Truman 1949 inaugural address (in his summary notes) In both the Quotations he ahs departed form imperialist and expansionist endeavors. He feels that bringing about changed through democratic practices is vital. 2) New International institutions - Have a mandate/created with one to address problems of underdevelopment (  Some continually with the discourse of colonialism e.g civilization to uncivilized areas  Worth thinking about as we evaluate globalization, the practice and promises of dev. Embrace the idea of democratic dealing? (In many cases countries re under practiced of colonialism, are obliged to adopt values of the imperialists of colonizers) o New Framework for post WW2 relations were established and 4 new institutions were formed. o Formations of the World bank:- with the purpose of supporting countries in their long-term dev. plans. the main law is a world without poverty, It was formed with the idea of providing Europe with the technical assistance needed to recover from the world. o Formation of the IMF:- It was assigned to offer short term assistance to countries to avoid economic crisis. Second goal was to lend money to countries who were in need of short term dev. Goals. o GATT:- Substantial reduction of tariffs. It was mandated to regulate international trade. Signed in 1947 and then lasted till 1984 and was replaced by the World Trade Organization in 1985. o United Nations:- Main reason was to avoid another major world war. Charter of Human rights. Forum for international dialogue and understanding peace and political stability. Conceived as the most imp of he 4 institutions. The UN today has become increasingly less powerful then the other institutions (in economic frameworks, which is an imp aspect in globalization) Globalization  Key idea is inter connectedness  Sense of Global citizenship (move beyond borders, being able to relate to a certain place  Cultural Exchange (We are living a world in which cultures are diverse, we have the options to embrace or reject what we are exposed to)  Technological and Political and Economical Changes.  There is a certain dependency created by globalization which makes the smaller economics dependent on the bigger/more modern ones (Mexico and USA). Economic Interdependence. (Dependency theory). The idea of vulnerability also comes in here.  Global Village concept. A global community, intimate relations, the idea of a borderless world. o Other Manifestations  Global Interdependence, for example debates on global warmin, what other countries do has an impact on everyone. Long term weather patterns are altered through human activity  Flow of communication and Commodities. We can travel and communicate much faster.  Regulations of Transnational relations. State had more freedom in establishing policies previously. Not so much anymore. This capacity had been in a significant way eroded, erased or disappeared.  Powers of Transnational Corporations are 2 dimensional. The profits of these countries are way larger the sometimes even an entire country  Global Cities, Hubs of communication, capital flows, not just in Europe. In the past these capital flows happened only in countries in the north. Many Capital and global cities are now located in the global south as well.  Western style Consumerism. Recent illustration is:- US and Canada sales over the 2012 Xmas holiday season expected to be 632 billion dollars (13% of the UN budget for 2012-1013). Negative effects of globalization. Control of the movie industry. This global homogenization had lead to erase local organizations and cultures as well.  Globalization had also been deifned as the compression of time and space.  Imp to think about MULTINATIONAL VS INTERNATIONAL o Apply this concept to countries Relations between nations/states. o Talk about multinational corporations (debates are happening within the field of how to define it) o MNC’s have operations in MANY countries  International Economy – o Trade between nations o Key unit is national economies o Key players are national corporations and economies o Regulations set up by the nation states  Global Economy o Transnational economy o Transcends the national states. They operate free and participate inactivates that go beyond national boundaries. o Beyond national interests o Perhaps beyong national interests (no national loyalties). Profit maximization, shareholder not national govt. o Erosion of national borders and interests o Free environment of food and services and capital across borders o Increased Power of TNC’s and TNI’s. perhaps more imp than many of the worlds govt.  Shift from international to global economy o Shift in power from states to transitional institutions and corporations o As globalization had advanced we winess a decline in the power of govt.t o devlope their own policies for developments. Their powers have been transerred/taken over y powerful institutions no longer base on particular country DEFINITION OF GLOBALIZATION FOR THE COURSE: the functiona
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