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Lecture

Pre-Capitalist Societies and State-Stratified Societies Lecture

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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1430
Professor
Eduardo Canel
Semester
Winter

Description
Pre-Capitalist Societies Introduction Pro-Capitalist societies -Eglitarian -Non-Eglitarian -Conclusions Introduction -We cant assume that all societies were all alike…we must look at their history -It is important to look to understand diversity -He will make it look like there were two different types of society. -to dispel the idea that European societies were superior and thus they were able to conquer -In some cases they conquered superior societies, maybe because of their fucked up political systems Some colonies had Advanced economic and social systems… Had developed independently and had vast trade systems Cap Colonialism is related to capitalism and its rise…character was defined by it. Cap destroyed social-economic organization Reshaped societies to its own needs Colonialism When we think of colonialism…it was certainly not a one way process in which a powerful society takes over a less powerful one…it was a two sided equation On one hand you have the colonizer -Nature of societies that colonized (processes of development, political system) will define how they colonize -determines their needs, goals, needs etc and even their means of colonizing others -Society that expands in early 1500s were defined by their elites…wanted luxury goods such as gold and silver. When it expands in industrialist times, they look for more…such as raw materials to feed their growing industry Nature of societies will also determine what kind of resources they will have...etc etc etc. Their militaries, everything is determined by it. Conquest of different parts of the world was not the same all over. When you look at the diversity of colonial experiences…it is defined by: Nature of the colonizer Nature of the colonized Time period Pre-Capitalist societies outside Europe Existed before capitalist societies in Europe -Were two kinds: Eglitarian…small scale (subsistence)(So..probably Indian?) Stratified (state based…had complex systems) Egalitarian societies -Small scale -Subsistence…only produced enough for their own development -Small scale, simple technology -Basically hunter-gatherers+tribals Subsistence and technology -Hunting and gathering…basically collected food. Hunted, fished, gathered… didn’t nesc engage in the production of food maybe gardening but not much more. -Had simple technology…had stuff they could carry with them at all times, nomadic or semi nomadic. -Usually nomadic but if they produced food they’d stay somewhere for a season then move again for the next one… Division of labor -Division of labor was quite simple. Almost everyone had to do most of the tasks that they collectively needed for survival…so everyone hunted, fished, did gardening etc. -So like general labor instead of -Probably more specifed by their gender and age…women more farming, men more hunting and since hunting success was rare…women produced more food. -This led to higher social standing than in state based societies -So like native societies I guess. -seems like women lost status as societies developed… Economy Think of it in broader terms…set of social relations through which societies organize three things…production, distribution and exchange of goods and services. Its not things but social organizations… Production -Socially organized processes whereby goods and services are created. With this way…one key question that emerges you can think of who the different social groups that are involved with producing and distributing? Are there different social classes each of which performs a different role…in capitalism you have owners and factory workers…this always existed. How did these relate to one another? Questions of ownership come up…how are the basic productive resources owned? Is it collectively or private? Who and how different groups control the wealth that is created…are there some groups that have greater power? Do producers control the wealth or do other groups control the groups? What mechanisms make it easy for producers to control wealth like this? How is wealth distributed? When this is answered we can make some normative statements on how societies are. Economy Main resource: land…used for hunting, fishing, gathering. -Ever man had equal access to the resources
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