- cities are also cultural and social spaces
- human collectivities can actually change their own structures
- cities of global south have their own culture
- cities in the third world have a particular lifestyle that we can call street
centre (lot of activity) sites for political demonstrations, carnivals,
markets, cultural happenings, etc.
- cities are spaces where commercial activity takes place
- people who are mobile, provide services and selling goods
- place for entertainment, community gathering
- in context of global south, there is all kinds of political activitiesthe street is
a public space that is appropriated by people expressing dissatisfaction with
governments, neo-liberal policies, etc.
- people will also engage in social activities, cook, prepare household tasks on
- traffic laws are easily broken
- public land: threatened by squatters effort by urban poor to claim right to
housing = making their poverty visible in the city
- optimistic: you can see a growing trend: peasants who could not adapt to city
life, resort to squatter settlements, because they cannot sustain to be
- Marginality Theory: urban poor are outsiders, not mainstream
- From this perspective, urban marginality is an anthesis to integration
those inside the mainstream contribute to urban life (culturally, politically,
economically, etc), while those on the periphery are not and are more of a
- They are still highly creative, entrepreneurial etc even though they are poor.
Provide essential services. Show themselves self reliant and demonstrate the
entrepreneurial spirit modernizationists want…can be argued that they are
the true capitalists.
- Other view is less optimistic…argues that looking at the squatter settlements
shows peasants that migrated from rural areas are illequipped to adapt to
city life…they lack the attributes to become modern, urban citizens….this
perspective is called marginality theory. It argues that these poor are
outsiders to a city.
Three Dimensions: account for people’s marginality 1. Space (dimension): (spatial marginality) you can identify those are
marginalized by their settlement the physical space (mainstream, outsider,
2. Economic: whether individuals are marginal in rel