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Sustainable Development Lecture

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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Eduardo Canel

Technological approach: invest in tech that maximize ability to grow food, propose to modernize food production systems in ways that enable societies to produce more food to eliminate hunger Social perspective: producing more food may not necessarily help overcome hunger; we may already be producing enough food but the ones who need it the most are not accessing it, uneven distributed; suggest: rethink the ways in which global food systems work and make tough political choices which address the power inequalities of food - they argue that given the experiences of past 40 years, sometimes technological fixes by the tech approach might increase existing problemsgreat deal of skepticism, it might make people more hungry - even in current context, producing more food has given rise to a paradox in which the absolute numbers of people going hungry has increased, on other hand, we have an obesity epidemic Green Revolution - involves application of social knowledge on agricultural production - came during time of communism up rise; valued this alternative, and that revolutions could not be created from outside, rather, created from grievances and inequalities that were locally grown - the technologies of green revolution were exported throughout the global south - what motivated the green revolution, was not only attempt by USA to limit communism, was perhaps MNC who seeked to establish themselves at the top of the food production in terms of sales, etc. geopolitical interests at play - GR offers a technological package that promised to increase food output in three ways; 1: increase yields that led to production of more food, 2: develop tech to allow grow food in less fertile lands, 3: produce multiple crops a year in this same cultivated areas/arable land - 1: biotechnological innovations: the creation of new seeds that could produce more food than natural seeds (genetic manipulation/selective breeding) - the creation of new inputs: synthetic fertilizers and pesticides; new plants were more prone to disease. Following ww2, there were chemical companies that supplied things for war, turned themselves into producers of fertilizers, etc. and food interesting - the new seeds not only produced more food, but it produced identical crops (height, maturity, etc.) - 2: the use of machinery: in the various phases that are connected to the production of food (harvest, irrigation, etc.) [tractor replaces 5 people] - 3: the technological package also requires particular kinds of knowledge - i.e. the assembly line: power/control over workers - lead to new class of experts who know how to make that work; today, there are scientists involved in such things - “principle of invisibility”: the technological package cannot be broken up (i.e. farmers cant take the seeds and not purchase the pesticides Modernization of Agriculture: - a unit in which more than one crop produced, diverse enterprise relying on live stock to fulfill several roles, also u
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