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Population and Development Lecture.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1430
Eduardo Canel

Population & Development 1. Intro 2. Population Growth in the TW 3. Perspective on Population (Neo-Malthusians – People + VRS Resources, Social Perspective) 4. Population Policies Strategies (technical & social approach) - How problems of population relate to development - 3 questions come up when thinkng about population and relation to devt: 1. Whether population is cause or effect of poverty (is population is the cause of poverty because of having too many kids which they cannot sustain? Or is population growth an effect of poverty?) 2. Is the world overpopulated? How can we define overpopulation? Or is it that too many people don’t have access to resources that are consumed by the North? 3. How much we should be focusing on population growth as the number problem of devt; some say that population is our number ne environmental problem today (growing numbers = growing consumtion/pollution = environmental crisis); others say, debates on population growth used to blame poor for the excessives of the rich and that pop. growth is not the main reason for environmental challenges today. - Solutions to overpopulation: vary depending on how one approaches the problem - i.e. if we have to many [eole relative to resources, most policieies that address these problems are to increase technologies to sustain, grow more food to attack this problem - 1 approach perspectives that focus on solving problems by relying primarily on new tech. and scientific knowledge (i.e. high pop. growth, then tech.sci way of countering this would be introducing contraceptives, if you cant grow enough food you introduce new tech./sci methods to do such things such as use of tractors/machinery/pesticides,etc - the other side of the debate: social approach most of our problems are based n social structures that create inequalities and that science and technologies could be useful, it is still never enough, the use of sci/tech as a way to to address these problems we need social reform (change social structures/power relations) Population Growth in TW - world population doubled since 1950 - 85% pop. growth in TW - Variables affecting pop growth: - Life expectancy, fertility (birth rates), migration (voluntary, forced, etc.) Developing Countries: - high pop growth: mortality declining - decline in birth rates Perspectives on Pop. & Devt - Neo Malthusians - Looks at limited resources, growing people - Population growth geometrically (2,4,8) - Food supply grows arithmetically (1,2,3) - Malthus: in 20 /21 century, conflict beteen people and resources hhas been exacerbated to the capticity of providing for everyone on the panet today - Goriwng hunger as people directly connected to pop growth (evidence) - Overrunning earth’s capacity to support us - Development is as resource used for …Growing populations, not to raise living standards) - We can control this problem - How? Population control, education with family planning, modern contraceptives/tools to prevent pregnancies = address these problems neo Malthusian think we can do it - Emphasis on persuading poor to have less children - Critique: - pop growth cause of hunger? - Env. Degradation caused by pop. growth? - i.e. meat production: UN FOOD AGENCY: mid 21st century, production of meat is going to double - 70% agricultural land consumed by animals that we eat
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