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002 Modernization Perspectives.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Eduardo Canel

Presentations: 1. Themes 2. Concepts 3. Other course materials 4. Didn't Understand 5. Questions Modernization Perspectives J.Isbister, Modernization Theory, Promises Not Kept  Modernization Theory  Capitalism, liberal, modern to traditional  Modernization way of thinking- agriculture, industry, services. rural, urban, suburban.  Walt Rostov's 1960 book The Stages of Economic Growth Stages compared to plane takeoff  Theodore W. Schultz Transforming Traditional Agriculture  Is it possible for every country to be developed, in that classification won’t we still have categories. Harrison, Lawrence, "Underdevelopment is a State of Mind" Development and Underdevelopment. The Political Economy of Global Inequality  Why Underdeveloped countries are underdeveloped  Imperialism &dependency VS. human creative capacity  'there are few countries today that could not virtually eradicate illiteracy within a generation if the will to do so existed" - Lawerence Pezzullo vs. Rosa Carballo  Values and attitudes (impact of religion, protestants/Catholics – Catholics thought of afterlife felling of having time vs. protestants go getters capitalists live for now) Saudi-Arabia and Israel religion and capitalism  Seven conditions that encourage the expression of human creative capacity: -expectation of fair pay -availability for educational opportunities -availability for health opportunities - encouragement of experimentation and criticism -matching of skills and jobs -rewards for merit and achievement -stability and continuity Lipset, Seymor, “Values, Education and Entrepreneurship,” Promise of Development. Theories of Change in Latin America 1. Uncovering root causes in underdevelopment in Latin America 2. –Values: (Family first, moral/ethical worker opposed to skills) -Comparing north/south US to English/French Canada -Family relations: differences in businesses and entrepreneurial culture (family relations, social prestige) -Lack of risk taking: (93% of LA businessmen said they would not put company in stock exchange) -technology: (threat to traditional society) -Subjects: (Majority of Latin American students study fine arts, literature opposed to sciences and engineering) dedication of higher education to development training objectives The educational system perpetrated detrimental cultural values Structural conditions make development a possibility, cultural factors determine whether the possibility becomes an actuality French Canada being less developed than English Canada (corruption in politics). English French relations resemble white-negro, white-Indian th September, 30 2013 HUMAN NEEDS DEVELOPMENT  both modernization and dependency share similar characteristics Capabilities Approach (Amartya Sean) Starts from human needs -> NOT growth Defining Human Needs 1. Basic Needs Approach - universal needs (shelter, food, clothing) - poverty = inability to satisfy basic needs development = overcoming poverty - poverty defined too narrowly 2. Human Needs Approach poverty: - material + non-material needs - failure to take full part in human society - lack of choice or capability development: - restoring/ enhancing human capabilities and freedoms - results from people building up skills, knowledge and self-confidence. To shape their social and physical environment in order to improve in the areas of economic growth of economic growth, equity in income distribution and political freedom. - Multidimensional process - enrichment -empowerment - participation HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX three indicators: - GDP per capita - health (life expectancy) - education (adult literacy + schooling) INTRODUCTION Move from WHAT to WHY - causes of development? KEY question -> EXPLINATION Theories: A set of propositions which summarize, organize, and explain/ predict facts conditions or events. Modernization Theory - Theories about pre-conditions for & obstacles to development PROBLEM: lack of development CAUSES: tradition SOLUTION: modernization Background and Context: - US social science - Northern view - Mainstream view Development Era (1950’s) - US global economy - golden era of capitalism - cold war (divided view of the world) Development: - strategy against communist “threat” DEFININE THE PROBLEM: Consensus over
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