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SOSC 1502 (42)
Amar Wahab (17)
Lecture 6

Week 6- Nation-State Formation.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1502
Amar Wahab

Week 6: Nation-State Formation (16/10) Readings: Yuval-Davis, Gender and Nation (G&K) (including Anderson Box) • The whole social philosophy which was at the base of the rise of the notion of state citizenship was constructed in terms of the state of citizenship was constructed in terms of the rights of man, a social contract based on the fraternity of men • Womens exclusion was part of the constrain of the intolerant of men to democratic participation which conferred citizen status not upon individuals as such but upon men in their capacity as members and representatives of a family • Many western feminists analyses of the relationship between women and the state have shown this independence to be largely illusionary, as it is the state which constructs and keep surveillance of the private domain especially of the lower class • Often citizenship rights and duties of women from different ethic racial groupings are different • Benedict anderson • Nation:it is an imagined political community • Imagined because they dont actually interact • Imagined as limited because there are boundaries Imagined as sovereign because it was born in an age of enlightenment and revolution • • Imagined as community because the nation is always conceived as deep horizontal comradeship • Dualistic nature to specify womens citizenship • Women are always somewhat included in general body of citizens of the sate and its social, political and legal policies • There is always more or less developed a serrate body of legislation which relates to them specifically as women • Discriminating or favouring women • Women are often the ones who are given the social role of intergeneration transmitters of cultural traditions, customs, songs, cuisine and mothers tongue • The importance of womens culturally appropriate behaviour can gain special significance in multicultural societies Question of legitimacy of children relates to ideologically constructed boundaries of families and • electives • Major part of control of women as national reproducers relate to their actual biological role as bearers of children Control of women as producers of national stocks starts with prenatal policies • • The encouragement or discouragement of women to bear children is determined by historical situation of collectivity • Population explosion, demographic balance and children as a nation asset express various ideologies that can lead controllers of national reproduction towards different population control policies Enloe, Nationalism and Masculinity (G&K) • A nation is a collection of people who have come to believe that hey have been shaped by a common past and are destined to share a common future • Nurtured by a common language ad a sense of otherness from groups around them • Nationalism is a commitment to fostering those beliefs and promoting policies which permit the nation to control its own destiny A nation is a horizontal creature do identity • • State power rests on national identity (nation-state) • Veil practice (muslim) • Men in any communities appear to assign such ideological weight to the outward attire and sexual purity of women in community because they see women as the communitys most valuable possession, the principal vehicle for transmitting the whole nations values from one generation to the next, the barres of the communities future generations, the members of the communitys most vulnerable to defilement and exploitation by oppressive rulers and the most susceptible to assimilation Not staying at home, but instead trying to go out to make a change can be met by struggle • • Wife battering • Male privilege gains a foreign army • Military mobilization • May make it necessary for men to permit women to acquire new skills and take on new responsibilities • Male street fighters • Fighting = manhood Pateman, Feminist Critiques of the Public/Private Dichotomy (G&K) • Illustrate liberal conception in public and private and express major problems in liberal theory • Unclear if civil society is private or public (family s private) fail to question why • Liberals usually see civil society as private • Feminists argue hat liberalism s structured by patriarchal as well as class relations, and that the dichotomy between pirate and public obscures subjection of women to men within a universal, egalitarian and individualist order • Reality of our social life is captured in liberal conceptions • Liberalism is piratical liberal is and the separation and opposition of the public and private sphere is an unequal opposition between women and men Liberal theorists exclude women from scope of universal arguments • • Exclusion goes unnoticed bc the serration of the private and public is present in liberal theory and applied to all individuals in the same way • Two spheres are separate but equally valuable Men rule within both spheres • • Liberalism is an individualist, egalitarian, conventionalist doctrines • Patriarchalism claims tat hierarchical relations of subordination necessarily follow from the natural characteristics of men and women • Theoretical basis for liberal separation of public and private was provided in locke’s second treatise • political power is conventional and can justifiably be exercised over free an equal adult individuals only with their consent • Political power must not be confused with paternal power over children in the private, family, sphere which is natural • Domestic life is a paradigmatically private for feminists as it is in locke’s theory • Feminists reject the claim that the separation of the private and the public follows inevitably from the natural characteristics of the sexes • Proper understanding of the liberal social life is possible only when it is accepted that the two spheres (domestic - private,civil society - public)held to be serrated and opposed are in extricably interrelated (two sides of the single coin of liberal patriarchalism Personal is the politicly to mean social life in personal terms • • Personal circumstance are structured by public factors, laws about rape, abolition, status of wife, etc • Personal problems can thus be solved only through political means and political action • The separation of the private domestic life of women from the public life of men has been constitutive of patriarchal liberalism from it origins and since the middle nineteenth century the economically dependent wife has been presented as the ideal for all respectable classes of society • Women are tokens in a mans world • Women workers are concentrated into a few occupational areas in low paid, low status and non supervisory jobs • Feminists conclude that the serrate liberal worlds of private and public life are actually interrelated, connect by a patriarchal structure • Highlight the problem of the status of the natural sphere as irrelevant to civil society • Domestic life is actually at the heart of civil society • If women must be fully in both spheres, so should men Pettman, Women, Gender and the State (G&K) • State is male dominated in different ways a masculine construct • Transition to institutionalized formed of domination and control was gendered • In the private space of the home, women, children and salved lived and worked to provide the physical emotional needs f men thus freed to go about their public and citizen duties Not all men were admitted to public power, but all men were admitted to sex right, to womens • unpaid labour, sexual services and reproductive powers (to womens bodies) • Women constructed in relation to man and given inferior value • Men move from public to private and back again • Positions of authority over unequal in domestic sphere and recognized as individuals and citizens in the public sphere • Public space is male, women appear to belong in private, women in public is out of place • Body politic is masculinised and a conflict is set up between female bodies and public space • Complex shifting and contested association of women with the domestic but also with sexuality and danger which makes women especially vulnerable to attack if they are seen as beyond protection and out of control • Independence is a quality of the political man, disconnected, impartial, nurturing or unruly sexual disorderly • The regulation of women away from the public sphere facilitates the definition of the political as that where the female and femininity are absent, and constitutes the male citizen and masculine authority • The state is an abstraction that refers to a set of relations, practices and institutions • The state is still largely masculinist -- male interests and characteristics as the norm The state is the main organizer of the power relations of gender through its legislation and polices • and the ways it is implicated in the construction of the public/private sphere • Impact of state action and inaction is gendered • women are more dependent on the state than men • State is dominated by men but increasingly womens access and power can alleviate gender inequalities • Socialist feminists see the state as propagating dominate class as well as gender interests and often race and ethic interest as swell • Radical feminists who priorities women oppression and see the male state as part of that oppression are often hostile to any further intrusion of the state into womens lives • Police and military abuse womens rights • Women as state workers in a gendered division of labour: teaching, nursing, social work, etc • Much state discourse renders women invisible, as if citizen and workers are gender neutral or accusing they are men • All state policies affect women in different ways --citizenship, labour market, violence • All states rely on womens unpaid domestic and reproductive labour • Many states exclude women from state rights as private or dependent or as communal property • State attend women as mothers States have developed womens sections, desk
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