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SOSC 1502 (42)
Amar Wahab (17)
Lecture

Week 10 & 11 - Nation and Colonization (13:11) .docx
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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 1502
Professor
Amar Wahab
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 10: Nation and Colonization (13/11) Readings: •Downe, Aboriginal Girls in Canada…(www.encrypted.google.com/books?id=Ekgox- QMlSMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ViewAPI#v=onepage&q&f=fals e) • children have been central to aboriginal communities in canada, figuring prominently in the prevailing world views of the diverse first nations and metis people across canada inner circle were everybody begins as daughter, son, granddaughter, etc • • first outward ring we are sister or brother • rings move outwards we are niece/nephew, cousin , friend, wife/husband and finally we are the mother/father • children are represented as a link from the present to future • children represent the cherished continuation of tradition and culture children also constitute a greater proportion of the aboriginal population with the birth rate among first • nations women being twice as high as general Canadian population • 33% of aboriginal populations children • problems of neglect, abuse and violence are rooted not only in individual family dysfunction but in historical process of colonization • years of displacement, marginalization and oppression, communities have become stressed to and beyond their breaking point • children face higher violence and oppression, girls are forced into positions of vulnerability • aboriginal girls remain the most invisible and silenced in Canadian society, erased from the most exemplary pot colonial work in the area of indigenous rights and identity construction • colonial history of aboriginal dislocation and uprootedness is very much lived history, kept alive through oral tradition of aboriginal memory making and ongoing traumatic disconnection of aboriginal youth from communities where a sense of home and belonging an be safely fostered • lived history—must make intergenerational connections between the gendered experiences of residential school displacement in the early t mid 1900s and equally gendered experiences of uprootedness,homelessness and sexual exploitation that any aboriginal girls currently face in the early 21st century pervasive colonial ideology that see young women as exploitable and often dispensable • • aboriginal residential school students forced to leave their home communities to attend church-run schools in non aboriginal settlements so that they could become culturally less aboriginal and more european • indian act of 1876 took away aboriginal women's legal and cultural status, as well as women's traditional rights to land if they married a non aboriginal man, a man from another community or if they sought a university education • the administration of of residential schools worked in tandem with the indian act to erode the vitality of aboriginal communities in part though uprooting aboriginal women and apprehending the children • 1840-1980 150000 aboriginal children attended the school • children not allowed to speak their own language, wear european style clothing and haircuts • residential school syndrome aboriginal girls greater autonomy and control over their bodies contradicted colonial british norms of • female subservience and shame • sexuality as a way girls were punished • children learned that the female body was the source of pain and same, something to be controlled and disciplined • european defined labour roles were also imposed on the children in gendered ways • child labour to run the institutions of abuse • boys to be farmers, girls as domestic helpers • women sent to wealthy homes in the summer as slaves and sometimes wedded off • 1951 indian act transferred responsibility for healthcare, welfare and education of non status aboriginal people to the provinces federal government still responsible for status indians • • children removed from homes sometimes due to neglect but more often due to poverty or jut being aboriginal • aboriginal families were given next to no resources to help them alleviate the poverty, unemployment, or health problems that they face • instead kids were removed to foster homes • euro-canadian misinterpretation of aboriginal behaviours aboriginal parents didn't fight for them in court process, made europeans assume they didnt want • them • the ontario and child services act of 1985- indians and native people should be entitled to provide, wherever possible, their own child and family services and that all services to indian and native children and families should be provided in a manner that recognizes their culture, heritage, language and traditions, including the concept of extended family • children placed in non aboriginal care facilities frequently encountered race based discrimination at the same time as they are becoming increasingly alienated from their home communities • single mother increase violence • aboriginal children living in poverty find themselves in substandard and overcrowding housing • gas sniffing to forget abuse turn to sex trade, prostitiution • • 14-85% of child prostitutes in canada are aboriginal • prominently using prostitution for survival yet risk violence, murder by young sex workers • Maracle, Ravensong Lecture:Nation & Colonization:Ravensong Racialized Gendered Experience • Experience from the standpoint of the racialized gendered Other reveals the boundaries of belonging; • Village (reserve) versus the White town? • Stacey’s school in white town vs. villagers who had attended residential schools (including Momma) ... similar oppressions? • Relations between Stacey and Steve? • Community of the village vs. individual/nuclear family ideal of the Snowdens? • ‘Weeds’: Importance of Polly as a recurring figure? • raven: metaphor of the canadian nation • raven foreshadowing things that are yet to come • raven song as song of history • remember the other stories, don't accept things as they are • recognize these worlds are made up through racialized, gendered processes of colonization • colonization continues to construct our present critical eye on reality • • standpoint of protagonist (stacey): produces whiteness and see how it structures inequality • whiteness as its own standpoint stacey is situating whiteness, recognizing the ways in which we think of canada is a dominant history that has • erased the history of race • we should racialize our past weed - a no one, no value, useless, should be plucked (technology of nation making) • • contamination of the garden • weeds must be regulated or evicted through death or suicide should see weeds as alternative sights of self making • • beauty is being contaminated by the weeds • must realize weeds are other forms of life, like medicine alternative knowledges, allows a different kind of telling • • their location gives experiences of privilege • how social relations are regarded • social network in white network to produce polly suicide • food, self sufficiency • white town-how dispassionate they are • kinship is survival mechanism • flu / influenza comes from white space • no immunity to deal with • problem: the way that settlers deal with aboriginals—how white town has structured the problems within the village • demand that the dominate group takes responsibility and how they structured the past and now, marginalization of stacey and aboriginal people, and history that allowed whitebodies to contain priviliege • relationship between stacey and steve her collegue, he's white • zone of sharing between two bodies • dangerously close to understanding • steve still tries to keep boundary Nation-State & Liberalism • ‘White town’ represents the nation-state: naming whiteness as dominant system of knowledge and practice • “how could they be so dispassionate about each other ...” (C2, p.17) • The Privilege to ‘not know’ (the settler’s myth): • “Carol knew absolutely nothing about her, while Stacey knew Carol well.” (C2, p.16) • Steve: “I don’t know ... I never thought about it before” (C15, p.129) • how blackness is viewed within society is how it is controlled • privilege to not know is a privilege to white bodies • erases idea that it is a settled land • historical present, present imprinted by the past • dominant bodies have a way of not looking • stacy knows all about white town — gender, racial dynamics of the white nuclear family (Normative form) different than the village • unequal way of look • carol doesn't need to know—that knowledge doesn't effect their life • privilege to not know about the village, not know about stacys life, about indigenous ways of life • gaze, way of look at and looking back, are about violence and continuation of colonial violence • relationship between intellectual steve • we see the world from our embodied standpoint • canada as a white settler nation whiteness has to name and racialize itself • • razak space: suburb/city vs stroll/slum • ravensong space: white town vs village regulated force of patriarchy • • Regulation & Order: • The metaphor of Weeds (Polly and her mother, Carol & her mother) Law of the Father (white male authority) – Mr. Snowden’s nuclear family, Librarian, int
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