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Lecture 4

Week 4 - Power & Representation III- Racialized Gendered Others (29:01) jan 29.pdf

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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1502
Professor
Amar Wahab

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Week 4: Power & Representation III: Racialized Gendered Others Readings: - • Williamson, Woman is an Island (G&K) our standard of living derives from incredibly cheap labour exploited by multinational companies in developing country, which produce many of our consumer goods on wages that would be unacceptable to us and from the control of markets internationally - economically we need the other even as politically we seek to eliminate it - holiday advertisements offer us the rest of the world in commodity form, always represented as completely different from the fast pace of western culture but easily packaged - all the images of otherness have as their referent an actual otherness which was and is still being systemically destroyed by european and then american capital - we seek to naturalize our own power structures in the mirror of natural life as pictured outside capitalism - the other is pictured less ambiguously and its capture proclaimed more triumphantly - bringing the other together with the known - tradition of a different culture appears as the modern achievement of our own - the commodity which expresses anthers value looses its own identity in the process, so those primitives ( women and foreigners) who are so valuable in reflecting capitalisms view of itself are robbed of their own meanings and speech, indeed are reduced to the function of commodities - our own supposed natural and universal qualities - to have something different captive in our midst reassures us of the liberality of our own system and provides a way of representing real difference in tamed form - fashion for tans shows most clearly of all the necessity of difference in proceeding meaning and also reveals how the relation of ideological phenomena to production is frequently central to their meaning - when working outside meant a tan, paler skin was a luxury - now deep suntan means leisure and pale means inside doing work all the time - in theory, anyone and everyone should buy fake tan lotion and get a tan yet the tan still represents difference as the caption shows - “isnt it nice to be brown when everyone else is white?” yes but only if you were white to start with — racism - the desert island is the ideal location for the other; it is more easily colonized than an entire continent - advertisement assumptions that all are white • Lutz & Collins, Excerpts from Reading National Geographic (G&K) - images of cultural construction from the media, newspapers, tv, etc - self image as a national institution on the basis of its reputation for purveying important scientific knowledge about the world and all that is in it and safeguarding important american values and traditions - mass culture, we are not counterposing popular ideas about the non western world to a more legitimate set of high cultural or elite ideas - mass culture refer to the commercial production of art and entertainment by powerful culture industries - national geographic as a vehicle for scientific information makes it less obviously member of this set of cultural products, but exam nation of its connection to prevalent and historical scientific ideas will make clear the relevance of the concept of mass culture for an understanding of its relationship to power and culture - people accepted and participated in the products of mass culture, were duped and misled, encouraged to develop a false understanding of their situation in a capitalist society - mass culture represented production for the masses by dominant classes, while popular culture referred to the remnants of autonomous culture produced by working class communities - national geographic photos are highly specific in terms of the worldview they encode (white,e ducted middle class) speak to, draw into their vision a larger group extending from high educated professionals and managers through white collar clericals and technicians into the working class and lower ranks of - the service sector - invisibility of women, esp women of colour american women in popular culture, third world women are portrayed less frequently than men: 1 qrt of - the pictures we looked at focus primarily on women - lack of modesty in dress places black women closer to nature white women have acquired modesty along with other characteristics of civilization - black women have been ported in western art and science as both exuberant and excessive int heir sexuality - male muscles takes the place analogous to female breasts as signs of gendered sexuality - physicality at the expense of intelligence - nudity in geographic photography has had a potential sexual, even pornographic interpretation - pornography represents just the opposite value: disposability, trash) - science attempts to frame the nude female body as devoid or pornographic attributes • Lazreg, Feminism and Difference (G&K) - academic feminists have generally denounced conventional social science for its biases regarding women in both its theory and its practice - it has reduced women to 1d of their lives (reproduction and housework) and failed to conceptualize their status in society as historically evolving - algeria women seen purely by religion and as islamic women - like looking at women in europe and NA and thinking purely as christian women - arab women are represented as being so different that they are deemed unable to understand or develop any form of feminism - an arab women cannot be a feminist prior to disassociating herself from arab men and the culture that supports them - global politics join hands with prejudice, thereby closing a western gynocentric circle based on misapprehended differences - disreputable, reinforcing notion of difference as objectified otherness, is often carried out with the help of middle eastern and north african women themselves - feminism has provided a form for these women to express themselves and vent their anger at society •Jiwani, Helpless Maidens & Chivalrous Knights: Afghan Women in the Canadian Press (CK) Quiz questions. One of the following questions will appear on the quiz on Jan. 29:▯ a. According to the reading by Jiwani, how are Afghan women and Afghan men represented in the Western media. Provide example(s) to support your claims.▯ - Afghan women in western media: ▯ - burqua = symbol of afghan women's oppression ▯ - walking woman under taliban region▯ - constructed as victims —> only fault being that they are women▯ - having “rescue-ability” —-business men investing in saving women▯ - - heroic afghan women —-physician liven there organized and managed clinics and schools of girls▯ heroism & commitment of afghan women + canadian benevolence = best Afghanistan ▯ - afghan men▯ - ‘knights of civilization’ redeem their dominative masculinity by being ‘good men’ protecting their women within the homeland and rescuing helpless maidens outside it.▯ b. According to Williamson, how has the meaning of a "suntan" shifted over time in western society?▯ - fashion for tans shows most clearly of all the necessity of difference in proceeding meaning and also reveals how the relation of ideological phenomena to production is frequently central to their meaning - when working outside meant a tan, paler skin was a luxury - now deep suntan means leisure +wealth and pale means inside doing work all the time - in theory, anyone and everyone should buy fake tan lotion and get a tan yet the tan still represents difference as the caption shows (keeping inaccessible, accessible) - “isnt it nice to be brown when everyone else is white?” yes but only if you were white to start with — racism c. According to Lutz & Collins, how have black men been represented in the National Geographic?▯ - all women are white, all black are men▯ - less comfortable with sexuality of black men▯ - appear bare chested—poses that draw attention to masculinity and strength ▯ - national geographic photos are highly specific in terms of the worldview they encode (white,educated,middle class) speak to, draw into their vision a larger group extending from high educated professionals and managers through white collar clericals and technicians into the working - male muscles takes the place analogous to female breasts as signs of gendered sexuality - physicality at the expense of intelligence ▯ Lecture:
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