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Lecture 5

Week 5- Wednesday February 5 Globalization and Transnational Feminism FEB 5 .pdf

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1502
Amar Wahab

Week 5: Wednesday February 5 Globalization and Transnational Feminism Readings: §Enloe, On the Beach: Sexism and Tourism (G&K) §Portuguese women occupations — weaving, making pottery, pulling in heavy fishing nets, hoeing fields, or harvesting olives §not interested in real images of portuguese women's lives today: working in the new plastics factories around porto, making Portugal's enter acne into the european common market; women working as chambermaids in hotels, representing the countrys dependence on tourism §ictims under the heel of international capital §omen in many countries are being drawn into unequal relationships with each other as a result of governments sponsorship of the international tourist industry, some because they have no choice, but others because they are making their own decisions about how to improve their lives §ravel is infused with masculine ideas about adventure, pleasure and the exotic, they are deemed pirate and thus kept off stage in debated about in international politics §ourism growth is widening or narrowing the gap between rich /poor §he questions whether the foreign currency, new airstrips and hotels that come with the tourist industry really are adequate compensations for the exacerbation of racist tneisons and other problems that so often accompany tourism §n many societies being feminine has been defined as sticking close to home §asculinity has been a passport to travel §rincipal difference between women and men in countless societies has been the licence to travel away from a place thought of as home §traveling women away from home without male escort is likely to be tarred with unrespectablitiy §an lose honour or be blamed for any harm that befalls her §ome women may unwittingly reinforce the patriatchical link between respectable womanhood and geographic confinement with their own gestures of defiance § man is deemed less than manly until he breaks away from home and strikes out on his own §omen have been lured into joining into the military by thoughts of leaving him §pace and race when combined have different implications for women and men even of the same social class §erm adventurer and explorer were masculinized §ary kingsley §ravel among africans — exotic people §omen could expand their knowledge of the work without risking loss of that feminine respectability which enable them to feel superior to colonized women §ourism is a package of ideas about industrial, bureaucratic life and set of presumptions about manhood, education and pleasure §homas cook travel packages §ourism has been a powerful motor for global integration §o be open to tourism implies a willingness to meet the expectations of those foreigners who want political stability, safety and congeniality when they travel § government which decides to rely on money from tourism for its development is a government which has decided to be intentionally compliant enough that even a women traveling on her own will be made to feel at home there §hen mass tourism began to overtake elite travel following ww2 most travel occurred within and between NA, western europe §id 70s 8% NA& European travel to 3rd world countries, decade later is 17% §ourism as an industry that can turn poor countries into a magnet for sorely needed foreign currency §fficals in these countries hope above all that tourism will get their coutrines out of debt §government and corporate officials have come to depend on international travel for pleasure §ourism as an industry that can help diversify local economics suffering from reliance on one or two products for export §ourism is embedded in inequalities of international tare but tied to politics of particular products (tea, sugar, bananas, coper) §fficials have looked to tourism to provide them with foreign currency §ourism development has been looked upon as a a spur to more general social development §any governments have used the expansion of tourism to secure the political loyalty of local elites §he very structure of international tourism needs patriarchy to survive mens capacity to control women's sense of security and self worth has been central to evolution of tourism politics §Gonzalez and Rodriguez, Wives, Workers, and Whores on the Cyberfrontier (G&K) § for the new asian women in particular, the internet heralds a new world of possibilities in information technology led economies, signifying progress from oriental patriarchies and traditional, circumscribed gender roles §gender is both ostensibly unmarked and unremarkable; the playing field is level in cyberspace §ilipina becomes a marker of sexual difference that has historical roots §ilipinas, as they circulate on the internet, unravel capitalism democratic myth §urn to site of filipinas on the cyberfrontier because they embody the difference that enables and haunts capitalist circuits §ilipinas, as they circulate on the Internet, unravel capitalisms democratic myth §hilippines functions an outpost of difference on the cyberfrontier §lipinas who circulate as global domestics, entertainers, wives and otherwise this has meant an ongoing national and cultural marking and marketing as historically circulated consumer items §ircuits of multinationalism, militarism, and transnationalism, symptomatic of US philippine colonial and neocolonial elations, continue to enmesh representations and realities of filipina bodies in global capitalism networks of desire and consumption §lipinas circulate as particular commodities (of labour and pleasure) within asian networks, marking historical and emerging intra-asian national hierarchies §ilipina bodies is perpetuated for the flexible accumulation of the philippine state and global capital, and for the pleasure of and consumption of prospective husbands and middle class women §t the same time that filipinas stand for the other on the cyberfrontier, representations of filipinas and that little the internet rely on prefigured, already constituted notions of filipinas that erase important differences among them §ilipinas embody continuing histories of violent imperialism §mages of filipinas on the internet sustain old imperial ficitons, fantasies and imaginaries that shape desires for relaxation, wives, prostitutes and ultimately domestic and low wage workers §echnologic has made the less developed countries of the third world objects of various interventions of the third world objects of various interventions by uncompromisingly reducing property to a technical problem and by promising technical solons to the sufferings of powerless and oppressed people §nformation technology is about surveillance of new subjects and the creation of new markets §ilipinas are commodities displayed, processed and sold to particular kinds of consumers §he asian working body is simultaneously erased of historical and material specificities, then exported and circulated as a specular signifier of broader socioeconomic formations s
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