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Lecture 2

SOSC 1731 Lecture 2: MODULE 2 Part 1-2

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Social Science
SOSC 1731
Lewis Code

MODULE 2 PART 1 THE HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF URBAN PLACES • Social and political processes tend to respond to economic forces in urban places • Original settlement in Toronto was Fort York a military outpost along the strategic waterway in the interior of the continent • The urban infrastructure is very difficult and close to impossible to change • Toronto city hall was built on a site close to the old city hall, tearing down china town community and moving it to the west where it is located today THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL CITY • Known as the commercial city or the walking city • The city was based on very primary forms of transportation with face-to-face interaction the major means of communication, meaning everyone had to walk everywhere • The elite could afford horses and carriages • Pre-industrial city was very geographically compact, you could easily walk to any point in the city, goods transportation was by cart or horse cart, home and work had very little separation, no physical separation of classes bc of the compact nature of the city, the rich and the poor living in close proximity to one another SJOBERG’S MODEL OF THE PRE-INDUSTRIAL CITY • Examined the social stratification and differentiation in a city that was relatively small in scale and where the movement was primarily pedestrian-oriented • Social stratification was quite well defined: elite, lower class, and outcasts • Business and administration was carried out in the core center of the city where accessibility was the highest and information sources were most plentiful • Some distance from center was were outcasts and lower class was forced to live • Relative status of individuals and households markedly declined with increasing distance from the center of the city THE TRANSITIONAL CITY • Both characteristics of the pre-industrial and industrial city was found during transition faze • As industrialization took over slowly the urban form of city began to respond to the new economic, social, and political environment, but this was not a quick process nor was it distributed through the city equally • One major stumbling block through the transition was transportation, innovations in transportation had not kept pace and walking was no longer primary means for getting around becoming less convenient bc the city grew larger PART 2: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE ▪ Industrial revolution was an event that took place over an extended period of time and not all places went through the Industrial revolution at the same time THE PRECONDITIONS OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ▪ Population with "modern" attitudes towards work: to create the combination of factory work and urban life required, one needed a population no longer tied to the land and specific places. Without changes in attitudes towards place, one could not find a workforce willing to move from the country to the city. ▪ Literacy: Such a revolutionary change in kinds of work also required people who could read and write ▪ Widely available printed materials, particularly including those with technical diagrams: simple literacy could not enable the exchange of information and receptivity to it required for fundamental economic and industrial change. Many technical advances required (a) multiple copies of (b) mechanically reproduced technical texts and diagrams that were (c) comparatively inexpensive. Such widely available materials, which high-speed printing made possible increasingly after 1850, produced enormous growth of amat
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