Lewis comes back to definitions of urban here so I am thinking that this is important
to him so it should be important to you too as you study for the test.
urban: Urban places are the focal point for most of our activities, especially
economic activities. It is in urban places where most manufacturing (secondary
economic activities) and service sector firms (tertiary economic activities)
concentrate. An urban place is one that has people located in close contact with one
another, implying relatively high levels of face-to-face interaction with one another,
resulting in social closeness, togetherness, interrelatedness which is not possible in
a rural area.
urbanization: The processes by which the proportion of the total population that lives
in urban areas increases.
urban growth: An increase in the population of towns and cities.
These would make great multiple choice questions (hint, hint).
Michael Pacione (2001, p. 8) definition:
"globalisation is a term used to describe a complex of related processes that has
served to increase the interconnectedness of social life in the (post) modern world."
Pacione (2001, pp. 8-10) --> the principle characteristics of globalization (edited
- Globalization is not new although accelerated in modern times.
- Globalization involves both: a) intensification of worldwide social relations --
time-space compression; and b) local transformations -- increased local and global
- There is a global-local dichotomy at work --> global forces most powerful with
spatially wide-spread control and local forces are considered weaker and
- Global forces bring about changes in the city but the city in turn modifies the
global forces to the local context.
- Global forces are modified by historical and local factors.
- The dominant underlying force of globalization is economic factors.
- Globalization undermines the control of nation-states and political boundaries.
- The positive effects of globalization are not distributed evenly around the
world between all institutions, people and places.
- There is not a unified or consistent response to globalization. It may be accepted,
rejected or modified.
- Capital is highly mobile and centrally controlled by three key cities -- Tokyo,
London and New York -- and a collection of dominant national and regional centres.
Three Forms of Globalization
Globalization is evident in three forms: