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Study Concepts.doc

6 Pages

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1800
Shirley Ramsarran

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Inductive/deductive research Inductive Research - Exploratory research - Use a grounded theory - Assess what is actually happening and why Deductive Research - Begins with a theory - IV causes DV - Start with a theory and test it in a particular setting Types of Parenting - Authoritative Parenting: high levels of acceptance and responsiveness o The more responsive the parents were the mores positive they felt about their children - Punitive Parenting: Highly disciplinary o Leads to abuse Child/Children/Childhood Child - An individual under the chronological age of 18 Children - Classifies certain group of people Childhood - Classifies a span of time in an individual’s life Philippe Aries, John Locke, Albert Bandura, Lev Vygotsky, Uri Bronfrenbrenner, Jean Jacques Rousseau Philippe Aries - Adults of the past didn’t have a distinctive conception of childhood as a spate stage in life since children were not given special emotional or legal allowances and because they were depicted clothed as mini-adults or mingling with adults in everyday life - In the medieval world children had more latitude, less monitoring, and more autonomy John Locke - Provided Europeans with the first treatise or manifesto on a scheme for child-centered education - Refers to childhood as a distinct and unique period in the life of a person - Children as “citizens in the making” or incomplete versions of their future adult selves - Views childhood as an “imperfect state” and education built upon the blank slate/child Jean Jacques Rousseau - Man is born free but everywhere is in chains - Implies that a child is born (care)free and innocent but not “blank” and unequal - Childhood a time of innocence and honesty - Children have their own way of thinking, seeing, and feeling than adults - Childhood was carefree and special, and education stifled and detracted from a child’s freedom and humanness Albert Bandura - Developed the social learning theory or social cognitive theory o Explains human behavior in terms of ongoing reciprocal interaction between children operating cognitively under their environmental influences - Explained that most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling Lev Vygotsky - Social interaction plays a fundamental role in development of cognition - Socio-cultural theory o Focuses on how culture is transmitted through social interaction or co-operative dialogues – between children/learners and more knowledgeable members of society Uri Bronfrenbrenner - A Developmentalist focusing on how a person’s biologically influenced characteristics interact with a set of environmental spheres and forces that shape behavior and development making his a bio- ecological theory - The model is made up of circles, or spheres, one inside the other, with the innermost environmental layer o Smallest layer, first layer – microsystem, the person’s immediate surroundings, such as home, school, and peers, that shape behavior o Second layer – mesosystem, is the connections and interrelationships between and among microsystems, for example, the connection between a positive and supportive home environment and strong performance in school o Third layer – exosystem, the social systems that children are not directly experiencing but may influence their development, like a parent’s work environment o Fourth layer – macrosystem, which includes the cultural, subcultural, and social class context in which all other systems are embedded Child Care - Child care can be very expensive - Globalization increased jobs, causing parents to work and not care for the child o Licensed daycare spaces o “Nanny” - Children have higher levels of stress - Receiving custodial care (supervision) rather than mental care Research, Researching with Children - Research o Exploratory Research: break new ground in an under-researched area o Explanatory Research: wanting to understand why something is happening o Descriptive Research: aiming to describe situation or events o Evaluative Research: to assess whether a policy or program, once implemented or introduced - Researching with Children o Ethics are a set of moral principles and codes of conduct o Children effectively have no “right to correction” when it comes to stereotypes and negative images that adult-centered studies of children have often created o Children are vulnerable  Children perceive questions a different way than the way we ask Standpoint Theory - Children in their subordinate position  Social Hierarchy - Look at situation from view of children  their Voice - Each child has their unique experience Writing an Essay - Rule of Equal Thirds o First Third: Think Read, make notes, prepare to answer o Second Third: Write the first draft of your essay  The beginning: state the question and rough answer your essay
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