• Books, newspapers, magazines.
• Printing is the process of reproducing texts and images.
• 1439- Gutenberg printing press. Watch "the machine that made us".
◦ First book ever made was the Bible in Latin (Gutenberg bible)
◦ Then made political pamphlets, law texts, stock market info, commercial trade info.
◦ Opened gateway for education, school, let's students learn accordingly.
◦ Notions of individuality came from this. Books to mirror oneself.
◦ From world literature to women's literature to Children's literature
◦ Printing was not limited to Germany alone, after colonialism, printing became worldwide.
• Brought added dynamism to renaissance
• Impulse to the scientiﬁc revolution
◦ Now able to reference scholarly sources
• Print forged European modernity
• The invention of the printing press created a certain standardization.
◦ When you have a standards, you are then able to get individualizations.
• Cultural industries that produced books, pamphlets, magazines, all emerged.
• Education emerged, improved it a lot I with books. Provided a basis for standard teaching.
• Development of modern journalism.
• Idea that the machine (printing press) is an agent of social change.
• Daniel dufault was the ﬁrst journalist.
• Word journalism comes from daily literature
• Lead to the development of the modern newspaper.
• Fourth estate is the press.
• So western politics has much to do with the history of news paper and print. High impact.
• Public sphere: between government and private sphere. *** important.
• Imagined community: idea by Benedict Anderson where many people are within the same
community because they are usin