Techniques of Land Control
Once the racialized hierarchy starts, it is hard to get rid of
Government policy of segregation—giving black people poor land
Racialization of space
There was a refusal to sell or trade with blacks so long as their poor land would
leave them vulnerable to accepting wages by white people.
Black Canadians were accused of undercutting wages (just like the Chinese)
The minority group is being blamed for the problem – ideology of competitive
Time of the Underground Railroad. Blacks were not allowed to purchase land in
many places in Canada and were not given business licenses because they were not
considered true citizens.
Racialized space—a space created so that it is an unfavourable environment to live
in – stigma attached to the people living there (dirty, etc.) White people put the
dump there, etc. but the minority group is blamed for living there
Asked for sewage, water lines, building permits, but they were all refused. All of this
stopped the community from moving up. Halifax created a slum.
The slum was associated with a particular group of people. The city tried to
legitimize this idea.
When residents tried to fight for their homes, Halifax said there wasn’t enough
When Africville residents were moved to the rest of Halifax, it made it more difficult
Restrictive covenant—a deed of sale that says you cannot resell that house to
certain people (if you own a house)
These covenants stated a specific group of people. Jews and Blacks were included.