Jan 23, 2012
There is an image of Canada as a white Canada. Racialized Canadians are
seen as foreigners who are unlawful and undesirable. Racialized Canadians
These groups have demanded apologizes and other forms of redresses that
would create better opportunities for them.
A: KEY CONCEPTS
Social Value and Market Value of Race
“Racialization or the social construction of race produces two major outcomes in
race. First, there is social ____ which is manifested in the Canadians view of which
groups are socially desirable or undesirable according to racial origin. Second,
racial groupings are associated with unequal earnings in the market, but those of
European origins have higher averaged earnings than non-white Canadians. The
disparity persists even after intergroup differences in schooling and other
factors are taken into account.”
“The social value and market value associated with racial origin shows how
society can be developed. Concrete manifestations of what otherwise would be
an abstract notion of race.” Peter Lee
Race is something that is imagined. The concept of black, white, etc. are socially
The dominant group controlled land in order to discriminate blacks.
Market Value & Social Value— Blacks were seen as having low social value. They
were seen as unworthy of occupying the land.
Peter Lee-- This has happened through the historical institutionalization of
discrimination and race. Legal and customary sanctions that uphold the
economic supremacy under one rope, which is the white rope, in society over the
The groups benefiting from these institutionalized rules defend these
normalized rules or sanctions that prohibitually condemn through systemic
rules and policies. These structures reproduce themselves and ensure that the
process of privilege continue in this way that exclusion and privilege in Canada
is institutionalized and systemically structured around race, gender, and class.
A process of dehumanization
Racial discrimination follows a process of dehumanization and dehumanizing
the oppressed. It provides the dominant group the mindset that legitimizes
discrimination and avoids responsibility. Intersection of race, class, and gender
B: KEY LEGISLATION TO PROTECT HUMAN RIGHTS IN CANADA
After WWII, things were implemented in order to stop atrocities against human
Multicultural Act of 1988- This act affirms the policy of the government to
ensure that every Canadian gets equal treatment by the government and gets to
It does not address the systemic discrimination.
Canada attempted to do this in 1984. Justice Roseline Abella presided over the
Royal Commission on Equality in Employment. She coined the term Employment
Equity (different from the USA’s one which is affirmative action). This act was an
addition to the Canadian Human Rights Act. The main difference between the
two laws is that the CHRA merely prohibits discrimination. The Employment
Equity Act requires employers to engage in proactive measures to improve the
employment opportunities of discrete groups.
Limitation is that it only covers employees who are federally regulated.
Ontario Employment Equity Act was passed in 1993 by the NDP government, but
Mike Harris revoked it.
This act was powerful because it asked all employers to implement positive
measures with respect to recruitment, hiring, retention, treatment, promotion,
On the surface it seems like the government has addressed racism, but they have
simply dismissed it.
C: DIMENSIONS OF RACISM - CONTROL OF OPPORTUNITY
KEY OUTCOMES and CONCERNS
It is predicted that by 2015, racialized individuals will make up 20% of Canada’s
population. They will mostly be settling in urban centres.
Canada tries to portray itself as a multicultural society, but insitutuions exclude
people based on class, gender, and race. All patterns of discrimination continue
in new ways.