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sosc1910 - Lectures 11&12

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Social Science
SOSC 1910
Nadiah Habib

Lectures11 12 DemocratizationDemocratization in the developing worldWe have seen how austerity programs and Structural Adjustment Programs often intensified ethnic differences and contributed to ethnic and religious wars within different statesToday we turn our attention to democratization and look at how different regions experience different processes of democratizationWhile the policies recommended by lending institutions has led these institutions to take credit for some of the emerging political liberalization instead this emerging democratization across regions can be said to be the result of both external and internal forcesBefore we discuss these internal and external factors lets broadly define democratizationand civil societyDemocratizationThe right of the broad masses to a number of principles and the masses effective ability to put these into practice 1 The right of elections2 the right to change governments and representatives through fair and free democratic means 3 the right to form political parties 4 the possibility to form organizations and institutions through which to exercise and to protect democratic rights5 independent constitutional and institutional mechanisms to guarantee those rights6 freedom from persecution 7 the right to human rights8 social and economic justice9 access and participation in the processes of political decision making development and nationbuilding 10 mechanisms of accountability and transparencyCivil Society A vast ensemble of constantly changing groups and individuals whose only common ground is that they are outside the state and who have acquired some consciousness of their marginality and opposition to the statewhile many SAP were tied to demands for internal political policy changes which included accountability and transparency the rule of law and stable political environment and encouraged a multiparty system none of these policy demands focused on mass participation in a democratic process Instead this was democratization from above the imposition of democracy from above What we need is democratization from below brought about by and with civil societyLets see what factors contributed to the trend toward democratization that has swept LA from the early 1980s onward and has begun in Africa in the late 1980s1
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