January 7, 2014
Overall Discussion on Development and Global South
• Industrialization as Development
• Hirschman and Kitching:
- No real alternatives
- Inevitability of industrialization, urbanization, and large scale production
• Limitations in their arguments:
- Development is more than material affluence
- Development planning cannot simply be based on economies of scale
• Ecologically Sustainable Industrialization
• Emerging Consensus
- Protection and Preservation of Biodiversity
- Pollutants Reduction
- Changes in Products and Services
- New Business Processes
The Development State
• The African Experience
- Sub. African was exploited more.
- The British, French, Italians and Dutch, their main interest was to extract resources.
• South East Asia (Taiwan, Singapore, etc.)
- Japan was the big power & was not industrialized.
- Main interest was to have access to land.
- To have more food, by exploiting other countries.
- Didn’t implement any system of slavery until ww2 (women).
- Had to always fight with Chinese to maintain their power.
- Capital Dependence and Technological Dependence
- Market and Management Dependence
- Conflicting National Identities
• Import Substitution Industrialization
- First- Generation Plans: Infrastructure and Social Sector. Page 2
- Successful Country of “First Generation Plans”: Ghana (first introduced in 1959, only
20% of its economy. 1970 increases to 80%).
- Second- Generation Plans: Productive Sector and Industrialization.
- External Factors: US, Europe they did not easily accept imports, there were high
tariffs and trade barriers.
- Early 19th century the oil crisis: New International Economic Order (NIEO). Mostly
countries in the Middle East created OPEC (Oil Petroleum Exporting Country). They
accumulated so much money during those years that they had to invest the money in
somewhere. Instead of investing of investing in their own countries, the invested in the
US commercial banks.
- In the late 19 century, there was a lot of loans in commercial banks with low interest
rates. Many of the countries that borrowed the money were authoritarian countries.
• Import Reduction
• Indigenization of the Economy
• The East Asian Experience (Taiwan and South Korea)
- Three major External Factors:
1. Powerful Chinese cultural influence
2. Infrastructural help provided by Japan
3. Western aid and technology transfer
- External Factors: Regarded by the US as countries that could easily copy the technologies
that were produced in the West. And they did so to improve their technologies.
- Three major Internal Features:
1. Limited natural resource
2. Population and population growth
3. Labour force
4. Will to “modernize”
- Internal Factors: Had no national resource. Therefore leading them to develop new
technologies. They were small in size with a large population. Did not have to rely on
immigration for work.
- Provide a brief summary of the book (an overview) Page 3
- Your take about what the author is talking about (not about your opinion of the
- Central idea (what is the author the author trying to say)
- What sources does he draw from? His own experiences maybe?
- What is he able to actually prove? In the end conclusion… Does the author
succeed in what he was trying to do/say?
- What else can you Critiques: What he doesn’t say, what he leaves out, his bias (if
he has one), certain issues the author isn’t saying
- It is a reflection on what the author is saying or not saying. NOT YOUR
- Counter arguments about what is going on during the time period the book is
January 21, 2014
What are Human Rights?
Positive vs Negative Rights
Debate on Basic Rights
Universalism vs Cultural Relativism
- Criticism/Debate: The declaration (1948) doesn’t reflect the values of everyone.