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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1930
Merle Jacobs

September 13 2011 SOSC 1930 Lecture 1President Sustainability Council pscssyorkuca wwwyorkucasuswebProfessor JacobsVideo population Six billion notesTrillion dollars spent on healthcareHigher age of babies dies in their first year of lifeLack of healthcare is not the cause of health and diseasesWhy are we getting sick o Different working classdifferent health consequencesAccess death preventable deaths o Cancerheart disease makes people die 510 years earlier than they shouldMore moneybetter healthResearch o Business executives had higher risks of heart disease as well as every major cause of death o Death rates correlated with statusPoor person has a higher rate of disease than if a wealthier person was smokingResearch trend o Higher incomelower chance of having bad health o More educationhigher life expectancy by four years September 20 2011 Lecture 2What do we mean by Health and EquityWhat learning do I expect to achieve o The issues that are happening around the world that is making this world unequal o What can be done to make this world a more equal place Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical thinking 1987 Critical ThinkingCritical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing applying analyzing synthesizing andor evaluating information gathered from or generated by observation experience reflection reasoning or communication as a guide to belief and action In its exemplary form it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions clarity accuracy precision consistency relevance sound evidence good reasons depth breadth and fairness Critical thinking refers to 1 Awareness of a set of interrelated critical questions thinking openmindedly 2 Ability to ask the answer questions at the appropriate time 3 The desire to actively use the critical questions What do we mean by HealthHealth is a social as well as a biological issueIn sociology we talk about how we socially construct health and illness within a community or societyCritically analyse health and health care within a changing multicultural and multiracial societyHealth systems and also how to promote healthHealth is a social as well as a biological processSocial group and the culture they share shape us IntersectionalityRefers to the notion of intersectional oppression Intersectional oppression is said to arise out of the combination of various oppressions Race class gender sexuality which together produce something unique and distinct from any one form of oppressiondiscrimination standing alone OppressiondiscriminationMeans that people are discriminated against in qualitatively different ways as a consequence of the combination of their individual locationWe cannot universally assume that all equityseeking groups share a significant portion of their life experiences in common simply because of their minority statusWhite males get more status Social locationWe are situated in relation to members of other social groups your place in societyHow would you define or describe your social locationYou can move up or down the social classWhere you are situated compared to other social groups Public healthPopulation health approach recognizes that health is a capacity or resource rather than a stateBeing able to pursue ones goals to acquire skills and education and to growBroader notion of health recognizes the range of social economic and physical environmental factors that contribute to healthPublic has to address not just illness of society but the education of society United NationsUniversal Declaration of Human rights including article 25 o Everyone has a right to a standard of living adequate for the health and wellbeing of himself and his family including food clothing housing medical care and necessary social services and the right to security in the event of unemployment sickness disability widowhood old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control o Teaching controversy Determinants of health the work of THOMAS MCKEOWNAre outside the curative medical systemHealth care system picks up after the incidence sets in that is after there has been an eventSocial class refers to individuals education income and occupational status or prestige some researchers use only one of these indicators to measure social class whereas others combine two or more indicators o People without the money die due to poor nutrition intake Health Inequalities Social Determinants of HealthhttpyoutubepSs6itQDZMwDr Adewale Troutman 12 years experience in public health administrative leadership15 years in hospital clinical and administrative experience o Equity resources employment and education and how that happens Dr Adewale Troutman on Race and Health MD MPH MAAcademic experience spanning 4 decades in Schools of Public Health and Medical Schools and UniversitiesThe Director of the Louisville Metro Health Department in January 2004 Currently serves on the fault of the University of Louisville School of Public Health Social Determinant of HeatlhThe British governmentBlack Report 1982 showed how socioeconomic factors determined healthCanada was probably the first major industrialized country to acknowledge that biomedical interventions were not primarily responsible for individual well being and population level improvements in health status and that the distribution of wealth education and other social circumstances determined mortalityThe Lalonde Report 1974 helped develop the idea of health promotion that in turn drew attention to the social determinants of healthThe report states Finally at the most basic health level of all the Federal Government has important activities in maintaining economic progress and in ensuring through a redistribution of income that most Canadians can provide for the essentials of life which is a prerequisite to both the reduction of morbidity and mortality as well as to the enhancement of the quality of life Health Canada lists the key determinants of health asIncome and Social Status Social Support Networks Education and Literacy EmploymentWorking Conditions Social Environments Physical Environments Personal Health Practices and Coping Skills Healthy Child Development Biology and Genetic Endowment Health Services Gender CultureHealth Equityhttpyoutube3n3Zt9aCuUc According to Ornstein 2001 extreme poverty is a reality for more than half of the members of the Bangladeshi Somali Afghan and Ethiopian ethnoracial groups the 2001 census reveals Their family incomes fell below Statistics Canadas LICO the most commonly used standard for measuring poverty in Canada 12 RACEAll twelve areas relate to issues that we can attribute to social justice in some form or the other Left out of the list is the category of race which cannot be included in culture Genetic endowment provides an inherited predisposing to a wide range of individual responses that affect health status Race does not fit in this category as well Race is not a biological category but is socially constructed However race is involved with where people fit in the Canadian hierarchy
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