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SOSC 2350 Note 13.docx

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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 2350
Professor
Dena Demos

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SOSC 2350 Note 13 - The assignment will be given to us by Sunday Disciplinary Power - We live in a society in which power is exercised in very pervasive but anonymous surveillance. o This is a subjective insight. o An example of model of this (Panopticon) is a metaphor of how surveillance works in society o Other ways of surveillance:  CPIC system and criminal records  Traffic Control System  Census: this is a pamphlet containing numerous questions that is documented and regulated.  This is for the pattern of demographics  SIN Cards and health cards - Other systems of surveillance and discipline: o Any system which includes and connects us through numbers (telephone, PC, student no., banking system, user acc. no., the school’s repository system o Discourse: as a system of surveillance and discipline:  This is an information through conversation of practices  The point is that all of this information is incredibly pervasive  Foucault argues that disciplinary power takes more technologically sophisticated forms such as barcodes, monitored phone calls, and electronic security cameras o Scientific discourses produce “truths” that then later on function as a norm  What is a normal weight? Normal blood pressure? What is normal?  On top of norms, consider subjectivity: it operates on constantly modifying our behaviour to the norm  We have a pathological need to fit in  Norms also reduce individualism. There’s a homogenous effect.  Individuality has been reduced to a common measure. - Foucault claims that disciplinary power is essentially a new, modern, phenomena, o Unlike juridical power it doesn’t utilize or mutilate your body. It has no immediate effect.  Instead, it’s working on your “soul” and mind. It’s shaping the subjectivity in a very detailed way o Consider the prison and the correctional system (to reset things or the soul into a type of obedience by introducing certain new habits)  There’s more of a carceral situation that happens with non- prisoners o Power can be gained through surveillance and through the threat of surveillance.  The Panopticon (including the law, family operate) and this happen in the sense that the guard can see all the inmates, but the inmates don’t see them.  Like the inmates of the Panopticon, kids don’t know when their mothers are watching them, and therefore they always behave because they’re under constant watch. - Consider a Hospital: o Hospital as a regime of health supported by various institutions  Hospital: spatial arrangement: waiting room  clinic  examination room  Very similar to the prison  Ideological control: the poster, pamphlets  There are all kinds of information about washing your hands, trying to do different things differently; there is no prominence of authority.  Pharmacy, insurance co., etc. - Consider the educational system: it’s for the purpose of production of knowledge o In the past there were inspectors o Evaluation and reports  There are always exams o Is this a bad thing? No, it helps produce knowledge – but of certain forms o Ate you producing knowledge, which is meaningful for yourself as well? Juridical Power v. Disciplinary Power - These are two different types of power - Disciplinary power intensifies as well as represses power. This operates by discouraging an undisciplined action, but at the same time encourages a disciplined action. Through repetition you eventually become organized - Juridical power (the law) it controls by denying. - Disciplinary power has effects (very powerful), but it is still very different such as benign effects - Discipline Intensifies as well as Repress o It encourages discipline and discourages undisciplined - Discipline Homogenizes through Activities o This means that there’s disciplinary regimes that begins to evolve in other forms. - Discipline Acts in the Production of Subjects o With juridical power, the application is only to the particular person who’s been ensnared in the law’s web. o Disciplinary power produces a norm for people to follow. They’re not just applying it to a group it applies to everyone. o The point of this power is to produce particular kinds of subjects. - Disciplinary Power is ideally Invisible in its Application o This is very different from juridical power because that was the manifestation of the state’s power at executions. There are visible exercises of power o Discipline power tries to cast light away from itself, and goes specifically to control the individual. - There is no absolute difference between the space of the law and the space of freedom for discipline. There are no spaces where disciplinary power can enter. It has this character of Perpetua finality. - Whether we talk about the prison, asylum, etc. discipline isn’t only being applied to the subjects who are in prison, but observation is taking place in those institutions, and is then being applied in its walls to ALL subjects in society. o They’re used to formulate norms for all of society. o There’s also a mirroring effect taken place:  The discipline in schools also resulted people in disciplining themselves in a similar way.  Johnny is having a hard time at school? Why isn’t he learning? Maybe the family is failing by not reinforcing specific values of education.  This relationship can be reversed. Johnny is a problem child at home; therefore the school is failing Johnny. th - Until the beginning of the 18 century, the way that the state and the law exercised power remained the same. Disciplinary power was contained within the spaces that juridical power left free. o The tree is going to be able to escape any change - Juridical power has to conform to specific legitimacy (jurisdiction of death penalty) o There is very little debate between disciplinary technique. Things to Remember - Power shouldn’t necessarily be understood as rules + sanctions. o Instead, Foucault shows that the liberal understanding of power no longer operates o Consider Critical Race Theory: when it comes to understanding power or punishment, the primary question was “what act should be permitted?”  Foucault shows that power is involved in the construction of lives of individuals  It’s not only preventative, it’s creative - Foucault claims that in modern disciplinary society, we have moved towards compliance rather than punishment o However, there are more compliances in law o There is a growth of compliance (notion of self-policing) - Subjectivity: - It’s important for the purpose of understanding CRT the notion of normalization, subjectivity, and discourse. Feminist Legal Theory - What is feminism? o Understanding it is crucial to understand misrepresentation o It’s a group of political and social, philosophy about experiences and status of women, and the inequalities of gender - It seeks to expose and oppose the structures of discrimination and oppression of women in society - Large and diverse social movement o Roots in struggles for women’s suffrage (right to vote) 1 wave  This was most actively in the UK, US, and Netherlands  It was a wide range of white, middle class women, conservative Christian groups who were willing to work within the existing political system.  There was a trial to persuade sympathetic men to promote particular causes (suffrage)  They confronted particular stereotypes about women such as claims of proper behaviour, demeanor o 1960s civil rights movement: Women’s Liberation 2 wave nd  This emerges most strongly in the sense as post-war western societies.  This is a time when people have been becoming more alerted and awake to oppression  Blacks and gays were making similar claims, and 2 nd wavers connected to waves  Whereas 1 wave only focused on the vote and overturning legal obstacles to equality (voting, property rights, etc.)
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