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Foucualt part 2 .docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 2650
Anita Lam

January 30 2014 Foucault Part II Lecture overview 1) Brief recap 2) Discipline and punish • Sovereign power vs. disciplinary power • Disciplinary techniques • Contemporary examples of disciplinary power 3) Limitations 1. Brief recap • Different from Marxist because he did not locate power in a social structure • Speaks about sifting power relations because power for him is a strategic relation rather than an internal possession *power existed everywhere, because everyone could have power and they could be subject to it* • Power is not a zero sub-game (can’t assume who is wining and who is losing); instead he urged us to think of it as a qualative and how they are distinct from each other • Focus: strategies/techniques of power and how they operate • Power is fluid, strategic relation • Forms of power • Power is productive • Power-knowledge *power was not solely repressive, but it could also be reproductive; could produce knowledge, identity, discourse, pleasure and bodies) • Knowledge products is also product knowledge 2. Discipline and punish  Public execution of regicide *18 century Paris* *If you committed a regicide, you are being punished for killing the king or for having attempted to do so; punishment demonstrates that it is geared to destroying the body of the condemned man through the display of an authorized man*  Vs. institutional timetable used in Paris reformatory -*Regulate the daily lives of inmates; unlike the public execution this is private instead of public* • Historical shift from sovereign power is disciplinary power *18 and 19th century* Similar to the forms of power  One disciplinary power emerged in the 19 century and the second interpretation is that disciplinary emerged and co-existed in sovereignt power. *second one is the one we take*  Co-existence Sovereign power Form of power Sovereign power Form(at) of knowledge Juridical rules Key aim Preserving sovereign authority Key personnel State officials *carry all the tasks; produces and carrying out the law to the subjects* Key logics Punishment as key technique internally warfare as key technique externally *meant to be punishing; punishment in particular government* Typical technique Spectacle *public executions; due to a particular distribution invisibility; what is visible and what is invisible* Key target Loyal subjects *working on a certain group of people; produce this loyal subject* • If power and knowledge are inseparable, then power knowledge has a certain format. • An act is either criminal or not • Aim of sovereign power is to have sovereign authority; signifies the attack on the sovereign • Punishment under sovereign power includes engraving on the body of the condemned person. Punishment here includes destroying the body of the person; this was to reaffirm sovereign power; punishment is an act of vengeance and justified by the sovereigns rights to make more on his anomies • Wanted to produce terror so that it could remind citizens of the power that was over them and that power is the sovereigns. • Punishment conducted on war like terms(?) • Two outcomes; you either live or you die • Sovereign power takes a personal approach or form of power • How loyal subjects are produced? Through public spectacles and in this spectacle public punishment subjects are terrorized by state officials into following the juridical rules that are set down by the sovereign Disciplinary power Form of power Discipline Form(at) of knowledge Norm *knowledge format of disciplinary action* Key aim Constituting individuals *through the proses of normalization* Key personnel Experts *instead of state officials; * Key logics Normalization *material and facial arrangements* Typical technique Observation, examination, surveillance *one or the few are watching the many; fewer observers than observed; want to put them under constant watch because they want to produce disciplined individuals* Key target Disciplined individuals • Does not take the knowledge format of juridical rules, but instead the norm • Surveillance *the one where the few is watching the many.. prof watching all of the students* & spectacle *the other way around* • When we talk about the norm we have 3 meanings and connotations to it; and Foucault means all 3 meanings; What is norm?  *clinical*Normal as opposed to abnormal; based on some measure of health and illness  Statistical norm that we get from a particular distribution; average is a factual thing  What is socially and morally acceptable in society? (Durkheim moral corps) 3. Implications of the historical shift from sovereign power to disciplinary power 1) Both forms of power continue to co-exist disciplinary power does not completely displace and replace sovereign power • E.g. criminal justice system: verdict, sentence *that a judge renders is an exercise of sovereign power; takes the form of a juridical rule: guilty or not guilty; rendered by the state official that is a judge; why have a verdict? To preserve sovereign authority*  Place some of our liberties in a sovereign and that sovereign is responsible in creating our laws and anyone who is violating those laws is violating the social contract  We no longer have public displays of public punishment but it doesn’t mean we haven’t made public punishment spectacle? Not in the public but in the media  In contrast; the sentence is a practice in disciplinary power; want to turn that offender into a normal conforming citizen; discipline them to have self-control so that they don’t commit crimes
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