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Lecture

Policing (V): Discretion and the Policing of Intimate Partner Violence

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Department
Social Science
Course
SOSC 2652
Professor
Anna Pratt
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 12  Policing (V): Discretion and the Policing of Intimate Partner Violence CJS Lecture 12 – Discretion and the Policing of Intimate Partner  Violence “The police make policy about what law to enforce, how much to enforce it, against  whom, and on what occasions” (Kenneth Culp Davis, 1975) What’s in a Name? • Family violence  • Domestic violence • Intimate partner violence • Wife assault • Wife battery • Wife abuse • Wife beating • Partner abuse • Wife torture • ▯ ifferent ways we name things have different implications and policy  implications.  • E.g. “Wife Assault” may look towards shelters whereas “family violence” may  have different implication▯ ncompass more people and could result in  mediation/family programs.  The Pro­Charge Policing Policy in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence • 1982: Directive from Federal Solicitor General o Pro­charge policing and no drop prosecution.  o Urge all policing practices to be more aggressive in enforcing wide  assault.  o Trying to counter notion that wife assault was mostly private affair,  address it as a serious social issue.  • POWERPOINT The Score of the Problem 1993 Statistics Canada, Violence Against Women Victimization Survey • Most rigorous and comprehensive study to date • Random sample of 12,300 women across Canada.  • Wife assault o 29% have been assaulted by a spouse/live in opposite sex partner • Kinds of violence o 25% pushing, grabbing shoving o 19% GET OFF POWERPOINT Under/Non­Reporting • 26% of all victims of wife assault reported the incident to the police (28% resulted  in criminal charges; 6% proceeded to court)  • 40% of victims of serious violence did NOT call the police • 45% of women who feared for their lives did NOT call the police • Women usually suffer between 10­20 episodes of violence before they call the  police.  A Few More Recent Findings • 2009: 67 women murdered by a current/former spouse/boyfriend • 3000 women (and 2500 children) in shelters on any given day • Each year, over 40,000 arrests result from domestic violence, about  POWERPOINT Wife Assault As A Social Problem • Numbers • Gendered crime o Vast majority of victims in these crimes are women.  • Connected to other forms of violence against women and to non­violent aspects of  gender subordination • Historical foundations.  Historicalthverview • 19  Century: the right of chastisement for ‘lawful correction’  o Stress on privacy and sanctity of home. Home was man’s castle, and he  was sovereign and could do as he pleased th • 20  century: Private family matter o Not to be intervened in by CJS • 1930s: Provocation and the myth of female masochism o Women provoked it and sometimes even enjoyed it.  • 1960s: ‘family crisis intervention’ o Focus on families and counselling and making families get back together  again • 1970s: ‘Battered Women’s Movement’ o Funding for shelters and crisis lines o Research studies on score of wife assault ▯ ot private issue, but serious  social issue.  o Either ignored or trivialized.  • 1980s: Calls for aggressive criminalization; federal directive • 1990s: Ontario pro­change policing and no drop prosecution Arguments for Aggressive Criminalization 1. Retribution/punishment 2. Specific deterrence 3. General deterrence 4. Denunciation/education 5. Change police attitudes 6. Reduce retaliatory violence 7. Make the ‘right’ decision for traumatized victims ▯ ictims may be so traumatized that they don’t make the best decisions for them 8. Provide immediate protection Factors that Influenced the Reform Process in the 1980s 1. Women’s Movement • Feminist and battered women’s movement 2. Law and order political climate 3. U.S. Taskforce on Family Violence Recommendations 4. Fear of legal actions: civil suits • Many charges of police officers
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