Thursday February 6, 2014
Corrections (I): How Do We Punish
1. Restorative Justice
2. How do we Punish?
a. Prisons as Total Institutions
b. Brief History of Prisons
1. Restorative Justice
o to provide reparation for harm done to victims or to the community
o to promote a sense of responsibility in the offenders and
acknowledgment of the harm done to the victim and the community.
Rise of the RJ Initiatives since 1975
o Increase disillusionment with the CJS
o Increasing concern for victims
Interest not addressed by the CJS
Exclusion form the process except as witnesses
Not enough information/communication
Some progress but still structurally excluded
Crime is committed against the state.
Concerns RE: CJS and Offenders
o Encourages passivity and guilty pleas
o Crime and Offender objectified
o Few opportunities for appreciating impact
o Few opportunities for genuine acceptance of responsibility
2. How do we punish?
What Prisons do NOT do …
Prisons do a poor job of deterring
Most people have a lack of knowledge about prisons however people have a
strong opinion about it.
What prisons do?
o Prisons as Total Institutions
Lack of individualism, hierarchy, authority, control
Status, degradation ceremonies
• Includes things like shaving of heads, giving numbers,
wearing uniforms, removing of all personal items. Point
of this is individuals are stripped of their real status and then transformed into objects. As objects they then
become dependent on those of authority in essentially
everything. Going to the bathroom, making a phone
call. Etc. this environment is also seen to create a real
Create dependencies and social distance
Subcultures of resistance
• Forms of resistance that develops against forms of
control and deprivation that is exercised. Guards tend to
develop their own subcultures as well. Tend to be
based on this “shared recipe knowledge”. Guards may
also exercise this kind of recipe knowledge about how
to get around the rules that govern the institution and
deal with the constraints of the institution and to a
certain extreme resists them as well.
• Many who suggest that it’s actually the very
environment of the prison that creates dangerous or bad
problematic population rather than just be one of the
places that contain that population. That the actual
institution of the prison produces dangerous
Zimabrdo Prison Experiment /