Individuals, socioeconomic, political/ideological, location, gender, culture, heritage, class, religion,
communication, social roles, citizenship, physical (disabilities), spatial
City mosaic of social worlds site of encounters between ppl of different backgrounds
> Consequences of those encounters instability of urban identities = fluid (no single identities, differ in contexts)
unstable urban spaces = fluid (differ when occupied by different ppl)
*Who? How? When?
*City as a “shifting mosaic”
Wirth: Social differences (through relationships) that are prone to context
Trying to separate from difference, not coming contact and withdrawn from it
Sennett, 1971: “purified communities” share the same characteristics
Walls: physical + metaphorical Spatial segregation Architectural styles, display of positions, languages may serve as
symbolic separations – Pattern
Act of selfenclosure, protection from cultural/political/economical threat
Choice inside = Insecurity, fear, intolerance
Extreme: gated communities
Boundaries separate, connect connect groups by enforcing separation of groups create relationship with “your own
kind” – highly ordered space b/c – power to impose those boundaries
Young: diversity may = misunderstanding
Meaningful interaction Urban proximity
Strangeness = urban condition
Social distance = mechanism
Simmel: mutual form of distance
Means of coping (?)
More than ppl can bear
Critics: W. ignore ‘community’
City = fixed space
Ppl live ‘locally’
Young argues we must:
Work with cities
A city of strangers
Appeal to community = anti appeal to urban
Face to face should not = ideal
Mitchell: how does difference figure in this conflict?
Connection between community and public space in contemporary cities
What kinds of social relationships exist in the city? Cooperation? Or Competition?
How are those social relationships expressed spatially?
What do we see when we conduct social science research in the city?
How does what we see reflect the social organization of the city?
Different lived experiences/different claims on space How to describe, analyze and explain? How to theorize it?
Two theoretical traditions in social science very different approaches to sociospatial theory of the city
1. Chicago school of Human Ecology
Chicago = social laboratory Method: empirical fieldwork
Biological analogy/metaphor in nature to explain what they see:
Explosive growth Rapid change Ethnocultural div