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SOSC 3993 Lecture Notes 3- Ethics.docx

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 3993
Tracy Supruniuk

SOSC 3993 May 16, 2013 Lecture Notes Chapter 3 – Ethics with Various Examples  Researchers can cause harm or damage if ethics is not considered. o Ex: Tuskegee Syphilis Study  Clinical, longitudinal study conducted between 1932- 1972 by the U.S Public Health Service  Study the natural progression of untreated syphilis , African American men in the rural poorest counties in Alabama, who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.C government.  They didn’t know they had syphilis but were told they were being treated for bad blood.  Scientists wanted to see how the disease spread and the death toll.  This is called medically institutionalised racism (1972)  Revelation of study failures by a whistleblower led to major changes in U.S. law and regulation on the protection of participants in clinical studies  Brought the topic of informed consent o Ex: Canadian Experiment: McGill University Allem Memorial  Funded by the Canadian Government and the CIA  CIA mind control program, begun in 1953, under Director Allen Dulles  MKUltra involved the use of many methodologies to manipulate people's mental states, (they were psychiatric patients) and alter brain functions,  including the surreptitious administration of drugs (especially LSD) and other chemicals, hypnosis,  sensory deprivation (played loud music for hours)  isolation,  verbal and sexual abuse,  as well as various forms of torture ( electric shocks, never letting them sleep)  Also brought the topic of informed consent, and physical and mental harm. o Ex: Laud Humphries- Tearoom Trade Study  Humphreys is best known for his published Ph.D. dissertation, Tearoom Trade (1970)  an ethnographic study of anonymous male-male sexual encounters in public toilets (a practice known as "tea-rooming" in U.S. gay slang and "cottaging" in British English)  Researcher- He didn’t tell any one he was doing the study, but acted as a look out for the men  This was a way for him to get personal information such as there licence plate numbers and ask the police for their home address and such  And was able to go to their home as a health researcher to ask various questions  And found over 50% of his subjects were outwardly heterosexual men with unsuspecting wives at home  Voluntary Participation o Freedom to withdraw at any time o People don’t always have the capacity to consent  Informed consent o Informed of what they are getting into 1. Purpose of the research 2. Any potential risks or harm they may experience 3. Any benefits they may experience 4. Procedure that may be used 5. Must be told participation is voluntary 6. Can withdraw at anytime 7. Confidentiality is guaranteed 8. Anonymity is guaranteed  Confidentiality o Can report what was learned from you but you can’t reveal who you studied.  Anonymity o When the researcher doesn’t know who you are  No harm o Psychological harm ( emotional distress) o Physical harm  No social Harm o Researcher responsible for legal harm  No deception o Informed consent 
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