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Lec 02.docx

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York University
SOCI 2630
Eytan Lasry

Lec 02 – Soca02 Research methods  Independent and dependent variables  Is divorce related to teen pregnancy? Can we turn this into an explanatory study? So you’re a researcher and you decide I am going to test this hypothesis  Hypothesis are explanatory, they look at research between variables  Identify parents with teenage daughters; the independent variable here is simple table. The independable variables marital status and teen pregnancy, keep in mind that you must be able to manipulate the independent variable status.  Married and divorce  independent variable  We have collected data on 100 married coupled with teenage daughters, collected data with 100 divorced with teenaged daughters  Table contingency table, slam dog. Marital status Married divorced teen pregnancy 25% 75% yes 100% 75% 25% no 100% 100% 100%  Divorce is related to an increase in teen pregnancy. Not that the relationship is perfect, a perfect relationship would be under married and you would have 0% under each cells.  Contingency table: most useful tools for analysing serving data  2 variables  marital status [married/divorce]  Is it associated with teen physical condition? [pregnant/not pregnant]?  Statistical correlation. A positive relationship and positive correlation  As the value of the IV increases  As divorce increases teen pregnancy increases  What is a negative correlation  A decrease in the independent variable, causes an increase in the dependent variable  Spurious correlation is not real it’s something else that’s causing this… ex: when u compare hospitals with homes, more people die in hospitals, but do hospitals cause these deaths? Or is it that spurious? It probably is. Why?  who and what kind of people do we find in hospitals? Doctors, nurses, sick people, elderly old people, injured, people who live in the home by contrast. Perhaps some sick people but mostly healthy people live at home  Do hospitals cause death?  After finding the sick people the correlation disappears. When it’s gone you immediately know those people who took it out. They cause the deaths in hospitals, they are the people who are already sick in the hospitals  that’s what spurious correlation is  Between premature deaths and leaving only doctors, nurses, cleaning staff, administers  What is global warming argument?  Co2 concentration in the atmosphere increase, global temps increase, positive temps between increasing amounts increases c02 and temp  If you can control for something does the relationship disappear?  When u get spots in the sun, the sun burns hotter  The more spots u see the hotter the sun burns  The little ice age was a period from 1650-1850 they were virtually known as sun spots  That means the sun is cooler  Large amounts of sun spots  Well before the ice age there was a period called mediator warm period  When the Vikings first approached  Vikings settled there and they also settled in Newfoundland, they long arrived in Columbus. They settled in Greenland which they called vine land  It was warm there, and c02 levels were low  Vikings had to leave newfoundland and they had to leave Greenland  There was no change in c02 levels  Temperature during this period is cold, rapid increase in c02. Yet we have a cooling period that last for 30 years  Temps haven’t changed but c02 has gone over and changed  If historical temp remain unchanged then temp levels remain changed  You don’t have to worry about warm whether just worry about cold weather, because of starvations of the poor and the need for warmth  C02 levels are 100 of times higher than the planet and locked ice  The last ice age ended 1200 years ago  The idea of shutting down oil sands and rob Canada of those recourses it is based on a flawed argument  There is no evidence for that  As the years warms up, ice melts, and as they melt sea levels rise, they have fallen  At least be aware that not everybody agrees with it  100 of people disagree with it Globalization:  Indicators of globalization, 1982-2006  Globalization capital and money  Internet hosts  Internet use is another indicator of millions  # of international organizations  Marshall McLuhan  he is the scholar that gave the term global village. He says that the globe today has many similarities with societies, [global village]  People who live in villages, the way of looking at the world is parochial  They don’t see anything and they don’t know anything about things that exist beyond village amongst where they were born or where they live  The world we have lost, medieval England in the middle ages, we lost the world in the small town villages  People born in villages, they tell us that the longest trip people make in a life time averaged 5 miles [longest trip u will make in life if u were in a village]  That world has been lost and gone, and no one knows whether it’s gone forever but it’s gone  Material culture, communication and technology.  Political institutions increase in the economy and global, these three variables and independent variables and symbolic culture, language values norms, beliefs,  Argument: the earth and the globe is headed towards a single symbolic culture.  Communication is linked to global and economic institutions. Changes in technology and material culture over time. The first is global communications. Transportation technology. Technology is using science to create machines and so forth, tools are used for material culture and so on..  Humans first evolved in Africa and then walked and migrated throughout the globe  When did humans arrive in America, they think first humans arrived from asia by walking.  They were able to walk because during the ice age sea levels fell 100 of metres. Islands were connecting Asia with north America  1500years ago you could walk across land bridge from Asia to America.  They arrived by foot, they walked.  They migrated from a southern type to America  West coast aboriginal coasts, carried the same DNA from certain sides and certain forms of the same area  DNA carried evidence of the same people as the sibera ->pretty  Animals enhance human power.  The train is a machine. The automobile, 110 years ago  In the 1850s sails came in  1912  the reasons the titanic sank,  Titanic was what we called floating palaces. Captain smith was the captain of the titanic and went off with the ship  The zeppelin technology (powered balloons) led zeppelin   Hindenburg was the individual associated with balloon production in Germany crossing the Atlantic this time and they were filled with h
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