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SOCI 3630- November 13

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York University
SOCI 3630
Alireza Asgharzadeh

th 3630: Sociology of Education November 13 , 2013 Paulo Freire and Critical Pedagogy Pedagogy: Ancient Greek terminology, a pedagogue was someone who would take a child to school and bring them back home after. Now days it refers to the production of knowledge, identities’, and values. It is not simply ‘teaching; but entails more than that. Critical Pedagogy: understanding the relationship between power and knowledge Sources of Influence: 1. Critical Theory in Sociology o The Frankfurt School o Founded in 1923 as a center for socialist research o MAIN QUESTION: Why didn’t a socialist revolution take place? o There are three main figures: Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse. (Contemporary additions: Jurgen Habermas and Axel Honneth) o Domination: -- the Frankfurt theories are concerned with the way domination takes place. (Ex. Germany under Nazism) o Instrumental Reason: -- to see the world as an instrument and to see its elements as tools o The Importance of Culture o The development of authoritarian personality o How is it that people like Stalin, Hitler, and etc. come to power? 2. W.E.B Du Bois (1868-1963) o Well known African American scholars o A vision of transformative education o Du Bois also talks about the inseparability of race and class. Ex. In America, those that do not have access to health care are mainly those of color o Calling for the “Democratization of Industry” o The concept of double consciousness o The subject of ‘whiteness’ and white privilege o A revitalization of subjugated knowledge’s 3. Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) o His concept of HEGEMONY o – The place of culture in hegemony o How the dominant group projects its view of the world as ‘natural’, ‘common sense’, and ‘legitimate.’ o Manipulation of public opinion to gain consensus o He talked about the role of intellectuals, no matter how intense the level of hegemony, you will always find people that resist against other people of certain groups o Counter- hegemonic activities th 3630: Sociology of Education November 13 , 2013 Paulo Freire (1921-1997) o Born in North-East Brazil in a place named Recife o He constructs a literacy program in 1961 o Once you got this education you could participate in the political process like voting o A military coup takes place in 1964 o Freire becomes the most well-known educator in the world by the 1970s o The Pedagogy of the Oppressed was his most famous book o A general amnesty is granted in Brazil in September 1979 Distinctive Qualities: o Emerges from the field of education, practiced law o Works and writes out of a third world perspective o In a postcolonial sense, Freire is a border-crosser. Constantly moving and going to
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