AP/SOCI 3630 6.0AThe Sociology of Education
November 27, 2013
SCHOOLAS AN AGENT OF SOCIALIZATION
- The general processes of acquiring culture are referred to as socialization.
- These are the processes through which we learn to become members of a
society or a community.
- Through socialization, we learn the language and various aspects of the
culture we are born into..
- Socialization takes place in all societies, industrial, agrarian, simple,
- It is a learning process that begins shortly after birth
- Socialization is learning process that involves developments or changes in
the individuals sense of self
- Primary socialization is the socialization that occurs during childhood.
- Secondary socialization occurs later in life.
- Different forms and kinds of socialization
Determinism vs. Free Will
- Determinism refers to the degree to which a persons behavior, attitutudes,
and other personal characteristics are determines or caused by a specific
- Are we free to be who we want to be or are there forces that determine
who we are?
- The greater part of who we are is determined by our roughly 26,000 genes
- For example, if we are good at sports or math it is because we are
somehow genetically predisposed to be so..
Social or Cultural Determinism
- Behaviorism: any behavior can be taught and learned - Much of who we are is a consequence of how previous behavior was
Sigmund Freud: Balancing the Biological and the Socio-Cultural
- Proposed the first social scientific interpretation of emergence of the self:
ID- the part of the self that demands immediate gratification
Superego- personal conscience
Ego- balances the conflicting needs of the id and the superego
- Criticisms of Freud’s Theory
1. Insufficient attention to socialization-> is more complex than Freud
2. Freud shows gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality
3. Freud neglects socialization after childhood
- Socialization: a popular term with sociologists!
- Enculturation: While socialization refers to the general process of
acquiring culture, anthropologists use the term enculturation for the
process of being socialized into a particular culture.
- Acculturation: is the process of acquiring a second culture. AKA
- Deculturation: has to do with the systematic exclusion, annihilation and
eradiction of a communit’s culture
Conceptual confusion about socialization
- Socialization is used in various contexts such as:
- Becoming, formation, emergence, creation, etc
- Learning, social learning, socially relevant learning, etc.
- Influencing, forming, reforming, molding, etc.
- Education, guiding, caring for, instruction, training, etc.
DIFFERENT FORMS OF SOCIALIZATION
- Primary socialization
- Takes place at home, shortly after birth…
- For example, in this stage of socialization a child: learns to walk, eat
solids, talk, gender differences, relate him or herself emotionally to
parents, siblings and other people
- Learns physical skills necessary for ordinary games
- Secondary Socialization
- Takes place mainly in schools
- In schools we learn about: identity formation,
- Refers to the processes of socialization in which a person “rehearses” for
future positions, occupations, and social relationships Agents of Socialization
- Agency is the capacity to influence what happens in ones life
- Do individuals have the capacity to resist the messages tat our socializing
agents give us?
- Agente of socialization: Groups that have a significant impact on ones
- E.g. family peers, community, school, mass media, legal systems, religion,
Mead’s Development of Self
- George Herbert Mead 1934
- Human mental process or thinking results from the
- Developed a two fo