AP/SOCI 3630 6.0A
The Sociology of Education
January 15-22, 2014
RACE/ETHNICITY AND ANTIRACISM EDUCATION
RACE AS A SOCIAL CONSTRUCT
The shifting definition of race
CHALLENGIN RACE AS A BIOLOGICAL CATEGORY
Race in a socio-historical context -> The RACE of the Enlightenment
• David Hume- “all other species of men are naturally inferior to the whites”
• Immanuel Kant – “humanity is at its greatest perfection in the race of the
Whites” “The Germans, have a fortunate combination of feeling, both in
that of the sublime and in that of the beautiful.”
• The belief in a natural of divine hierarchical order in which non-whites are
seen as naturally inferior to whites.
Ideology and Race
• Racist ideology provides a conceptual framework for the political, social
and cultural structures of inequality and the systems of dominance based
• Racism as an ideology include whole range of concepts, ideas, images
and institutions that provide the framework of interpretations and meaning
for racial thought in society.
• Organizes, preserves and perpetuates the power structures in society.
• It is communicated and reproduced through agencies of socialization and
• Racism may be defined as a negative, dehumanizing, and oppressive
view, attitude, behavior and action towards members of another group.
• Ranging from a variety of social, scientific, biological, institutional,
linguistic and cultural kinds, contemporary racism(s) are a conflation of
ethnicity, class, language, religion and broad cultural geographical
concerns and definitions.
• Racism this is situation in which …
DIFFERENT MANIFESTATIONS OF RACISM
• Physiological differences: e.g., skin color, hair texture, facial features, racial heritage, etc.
• Cultural differences: e.g. language, customs, behavior, clothing and mode
of dress, eating habits etc.
• Ideological differences: e.g. religion, political affiliation, belief, etc.
• Geographical differences or differences in the place of birth: e.g. Asian,
African, Latino, Irish, Iraqi, etc.
A COMPREHENSIVE DEFINITON
• A comprehensive definition of racism/racist may include the following
- Individuals or groups who think of themselves as ‘superior’ to others on
the basis of their racial, ethnic, ideological, geographical, and cultural
backgrounds engage in racist activities and maybe identified as racist.
- Any individual, group, organization, or institution who denies equal
access and opportunity to others on the basis of their real or perceived
racial/ethnic/ideological/geographical/cultural differences, engage in
racist activities and is racist.
Kinds of Racism
• Racial Bigotry: open, conscious expression of racist views by an individual
• Institutional or Systemic Racism: racist practices, rules, and laws that
have become part of the system
• Polite, Smiling, Or Friendly Rac