AP/SOCI 3630 6.0A
The Sociology of Education
January 22, 2014
The Growth of Critical Race Theory
• CRT offers: A critical examination of the role of the state and societal institutions.
• It addresses the social construction of difference and interlocking systems of
• Situates power relations at the center of the analysis of race and social difference.
• Focuses on the urgent need for a social system that is more representative,
equitable, inclusive and capable of responding to the concerns and aspirations of
• CRT emphasizes the role of narrative/storytelling to analyze racism.
Critical Race Theory and the AntiRacism Movement
• Antiracism is defined as an action oriented strategy for institutional and systemic
• It addresses racism and the interlocking systems of social oppression in diverse
• It suggests that racist institutional policies and practices are central to the
problems of racism today.
• Thus, anti racism refers to the measures and mechanisms designed by the state,
institutions, organizations, groups and individuals to counteract racism.
• Aims of antiracism are by definition oppositional
Anti Racism Education
• Antiracism education may be defined as an action oriented strategy to interrogate
racism and the interlocking systems of social oppression for the purpose of
institutional and systemic change particularly in educational and pedagogical
• ARE was formulated in the USA and Britain, appearing in Canadian context in
late 1980s and is still evolving.
• Result of minority communities drawing attention to the way racism limited life
chances of their children.
• Aiming to change discriminatory institutional and organizational policies and
• Based on the principle that race is anchored in experiences of racial minorities in
society and in the school, and that antiracism is a tool for social change.
• From late 1980s to the mid 1990s: a catalyst for some boards of education to
develop new policies.
• Introduction of various programs including:
Training educators in antiracism
Reviews of personnel practices
Analysis of assessment and placement procedures Introduction of employment equity strategies
Review curriculum materials to identify racial bias
Development of AR curriculum resources and strategies
Basic Principles of Anti Racism Education
1. Recognition of the social effects of race, despite the concept’s lack of scientific
2. Recognition of intersections of all forms of oppression
3. Acknowledgement of the power and privilege of whiteness in society (Du Bois)
4. Acknowledgement of marginalization and delegitimation of certain knowledge’s
5. Acknowledgement of the need for a holistic understanding/appreciation of the
6. Acknowledgement of a relationship between identity formation and schooling
7. Acknowledgement of the need to address the challenge of difference and diversity
in schooling, and by extension, in the larger society.
8. Acknowledgement of the role of education in the production and reproduction of
racial, class, and gender inequalities.
9. The acknowledgement that school problems experiences by students cannot be
understood in isolation from larger social, economic, and political issues in
10. The questioning of the views that sees ‘family’ or ‘home environment’ as a source
of the problems that students experience in schools.
Racism in Canadian Education
• Educational institutions form a system of structured inequality based on race,
• Racialminority and white students have similar career and professional
aspirations when entering the school system, the outcomes are markedly different.
Formal Curriculum (FC)