Lesbian, Gay, and Transgendered Families
January 13, 2014
* 1. Background
* 2. Creating Families
* 3. Parenting Practices
* 4. Problematic Assumptions
- Transsexual -> Persons who may go to reconstructive surgery to change their biological
sex to conform with their gender identity are more often known as transsexuals
- Transgender- > their gender identity differs from the body they were born with. They can
have a variety of sexual orientations. It does not imply lesbians, straight, queer.
- Mitchell is one of the only authors who resist these heteranormative ideologies.
* 1960s+: gay liberation movement
- Stonewall- Riot/social movement regarding queer rights.
* In 1969 in Canada, homosexual relations were no longer considered criminal
* Since 2005, samesex marriages have been legal
* in sociology of the family, research does suffer from a heterosexist bias
2. Creating Families
For lesbian women, choices about
mothering are connected to (Ben Ari and Levini 2006):
* Childhood socialization matters to “coming out” and making decisions about family life
* Lesbian and gay couples form in many of the same ways as straight couples
* Gay and lesbian couples may create families through “fictive kin” or chosen family members
* Decisions to parent are influenced by similar factors as those experienced by straight individuals and
different ones too…
What are some challenges that a samesex couple might face in deciding to have a child?
ForSchacher et al., 2005):bout fathering are connected to (Armesto and Shapiro, 2011;
* Negotiating their conflicting identities as gay men and fathers
* Their ability to confront dominant biases about family life
* Their capacity to deal with double discrimination
-Because they are gay, because they are gay dads
* Working through their privileges associated with being male breadwinners
Routes to Parenthood
* Known donor * Previous relationships
3. Parenting Practices
* Deciding to parent and the “hows” of parenting are especially influenced by institutionalized
heterosexuality… challenges can materialize for samesex couples
* Intergenerational ambivalence across generations towards samesex couples and their children
* Race and ethnicity, religion, and parental education structure other family members’ reactions or
- Parenting of gay individuals is tied up with how they connect to their parents
- This means, my parents generation had diff ideas than mine, was not as open, this
reluctance of seeing the new parenting pracists is because it is different (generartion
- Generation matters.
Challenges for Lesbian Mothers
* Why mother?
- For the same reasons why straight women want to mother.
* The implications of raising children in wider society
* Childbirth decisions
- If either of the women are capable of conceiving, they have to talk about who will.
* The naming of mothers - Who is going to be called mom/dad/mom 2.
* Achieving shared parenting
- Lesbian mom’s talk about how they will achieve this financially.
* Father involvement
- Decide if they father will be involved (anonymous sperm donor, involvement.
* Plans for union dissolution
- What happens to the children if the parents break up/divorce etc.
* Establishing extensive kin networks
- Working through ideas of families of choice, choose who is going to be part of the
Adoptive Gay Fathers (Armesto and Shapiro, 2011)
The act of adopting and fathering as a gay man means:
* Realizing fathering is real, is h