Wednesday,October 5th, 2016
Lecture 3 - Discipline and Punish: Foucault
•Reason became a way of organizing knowledge,
rise of empiricism and science
•Universalism- the search for general laws
•Progress- the idea that the human condition can be improved
•Rise of secularism
•Move from barbaric to systems that became more rational, more rule bound, more disciplined
Culture of Spectacle: Punishment is effected on the body in public displays of torture, dismemberment
Carceral Culture: Punishment and discipline become internalized and directed to the constitution and,
when necessary rehabilitation of social subjects. He means at it as a culture that the panopticon model of
surveillance has been defused as a principle of social organization.
-Prisons: place where discipline could be instilled
-Didn’t replace Spectacle all together, they exist alongside each other
•The concept of the design allowed an observer to observe all the prisoners without the prisoners being
able to tell if they are being watched/observed. “all seen” round the clock surveillance machine.
•Constant supervision Foucault said, and forced discipline broke the will of the criminal and made him
into a docile body.
•Model of how society functions.
•To maintain order the citizens needs to believe that any person can be surveyed at any time.
•Power is specially
Two types of power:
1.Sovereign power: involves obedience to the law of the king or central authority figure
2.Disciplinary Power: Discipline is a mechanism of power which regulated the behaviour of individuals
in the social body. This is done by regulating the organization of space (architecture), of time (timetable),
and peoples activities and behaviour (drills, posture, movements)- It is enforced with the aid of complex
system of surveillance, foucault emphasizes that power is not discipline, rather discipline is simply one
way in which power can be exercised
Disciplinary Society “Aims to produce right thinking, lawful acting, conformist behaving, docile bodies
needed by modernist economies”
Foucaults concept of power:
•Power is not a thing but a relation, doesn't reside in one individual, resides in the relation between
individuals lets say, distribution of bodies in space
•Power is not repressive but it is productive
•Power is not a property of state. Power is not something that is exclusively localized in government and
the state. Rather, power is exercised throughout the social body
•Power operates at the most micro levels of social relations. Power is omnipresent at every level of the
•The exercise of power is strategic and war-like-
•Mechanisms of power produce different types of knowledge which collate information on peoples
activities and existence. The knowledge gathered in this way further reinforces exercises of power