SOSC 1130 Lecture Notes - Transnational Organized Crime

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Published on 2 Feb 2013
Undocumented Migration
Only some people are deemed acceptable to migrate to their country of choice
Migration policy in receiving countries has become more restrictive
How does one respond to the barrier of receiving countries?
Desperate individuals will do anything possible to migrate to the receiving
We can call them refugees of the global economy (people seeking refuge from
certain circumstances)
Excluded individual, the restriction of freedom of movement
Who bears responsibility for this issue of undocumented migration?
Who are the beneficiaries from undocumented migration?
“Illegal” Migration as a Problematic Concept
Categories of migrants
oLegal-legal: people who have reasons to stay legally, or have visa so they
can remain until expiry date
oIllegal-legal (converted, amnesty, refugee claims): people who have come
illegally but have obtained legal status
oLegal-illegal: People who overstay expired documents
oIllegal-illegal (independent) came to Canada without documents and has
remained without documents. Not connected to any organization
oLegal-legal (indentured)
oIllegal-illegal (indentured)
Definition of illegal migration very narrow, does not account for diversity within
Undocumented migrants less aggressive than illegal, illegal associates with
Risk discourse: discourse that is preoccupied with dangers, cultivates insecurities
focuses them on scapegoats and forces people to accept expert knowledge of risk
We have moved into a risk discourse due to the cold war, now we are endangered
by illegal immigration
This danger and risk discourse similar to terrorism, no sense of peace, uneasy,
unsure when risk will strike
Migrant workers in an irregular situation without documents
Individual (need)
oDesperate individuals who want to migrate
Profit driven (greed)
oTransnational organized crime organization
Profit off smuggling people across borders
oResponse of employers in receiving country
Benefit from vulnerability of undocumented migrants
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