SOSC 1130 Lecture Notes - Safety Valve, Failed State

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2 Feb 2013
Canadian Immigration Policies during the Great Depression: Political Deportations
Political economic considerations in Canada shaped Canadian immigration
policies in late 19th century and beginning of the 20th
Intimately connected with national policies
Canada needed workers to participate in labour intensive industries
Canadian government wanted agricultural settlers who raised capital in Canada
through wage work
Climate of xenophobia, nativist sentiments, (social anxiety)
Nativist – defender of Canadian culture and ways
oBritish, like British immigrants
Great Depression and the Challenge to the Nation State
Collapse of economy and national market in 1920s, investors lost confidence
Resulted in massive unemployment
Two major tasks
oMaintain Canada’s economic viability
oTo organize support for its project of nation building
Nation-building refers to the process of constructing or structuring a national identity
using the power of the state. This process aims at the unification of the people within the
state so that it remains politically stable and viable in the long run. Nation-building can
involve the use of propaganda or major infrastructure development to foster social
harmony and economic growth.
oBuilding infrastructures in Canada, settling west, building railways
oBuilding nation and unit while excluding others
oBuilding nation in opposition to other nations
oAnything excluding people is an example, trying to keep white Canada
Nation building is crucial to nation states – unifies the country creating economic
and political links
oCreates myth of common origin
oHomogenizes diverse societies
oDevelops symbols that transcend differences
When ever there is a crisis, nation states become very fragile
Nation States = social constructions
To not fall apart, need a sense of common project and in a crisis this is more
Gramsci’s concept of hegemony
oMore peaceful way of maintaining control (ideology over physical
oInvolves organized consensus
oPartial concealment of coercion
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