SOSC 1185 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Occupational Segregation, Great Lakes, Industrial Revolution

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25 Aug 2016
Work – Historical: Notes
oGender Wage Gap: Wage differential due to gender; on average women
make less than men, almost 75 cents on a dollar that men make
oParticularly significant when we moved to a wage-based economy
oOccupational segregation : gender specific patterns in occupational
opportunities and employment, people were organizing jobs based on
which gender should do what, attached with stigma to people who don’t
conform to the societal norms
Around 20th century, women were categorized (ghettoization) in 4
occupational groups
Professional teaching and nursing
Commercial and financial
Both important concepts
Work in this economy mean what was done to survive
oCan have a division of labour where a specific gender can do a
specific task without having systemic inequality
1. Early colonization
1. Staying in one place became more common, more patterns of settlement
near St. Lawrence Rives and the Great Lakes
oMale dominance starts and concept of private property/ inheritance is
oEuropean women were encouraged to come to Canada
oAbandonment and racism were shown when European men leave their
aboriginal wives for acceptable European wives
oWomen become responsible for things closer to home, including
produce, canning and preserving, taking care of farm animals,
reproductive work due to need of physical labour
Still important tasks, not just household work
Contract domestic service work for young girls for housing, older
widowed women worked as cook, bartender, washers, borders
(paying guest), midwives
2. Early industrialization
1. Industrial revolution affected Canada later around mid-nineteenth century
(Great lakes and St. Lawrence)
By 1870s, factory system was dominating in Toronto and Montreal
Clear structural gender division was introduced to produce gender
Children were increasing expected to go to school
Characterized by a distinct gender roles; breadwinner as men, and
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