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Lecture 7

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Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1910
Professor
Dorathy Moore
Lecture
7

Page:
of 4
AP SOSC 1210 (lecture) Wednesday,
January 14th, 2010
review kallen nov. 9th -techniques of domination
1. control of immigration as a means in which the dominant group controls
2. control of land
3. control of opportunities in Canada
Model of Competitive Racism
1. Majority assumptions: inferior, culture/ race, threat to dominance, dangerous
2. Rationale: whitest= brightest= right(s)
3. Interiorized attribute: culture/ race
4. Invalidation ideology: racism
5. Majority Policy: malevolence:
a. Containment through segregation, prosecution, and or exclusion
6. Human rights violations: individual and categorical/ collective;
a. denial of educational, political rights
7. Internalization and self-fulfilling prophecy
Film: Shadow of Gold Mountain
Many Chinese were forced to pay the Head Tax in Canada –up to $500
Used as a tool to monitor Chinese immigration to Canada
Chinese came to Canada in large part because of interest in the benefits of the Gold
Rush
Many Chinese labourers lost their lives- had to use dynamite to blast through Rockies
to access channels
No need for Chinese immigration and labourers upon the completion of the Railway
Justified that the Chinese were driving skilled workers out of employment
People payed willingly within the context of the Immigration Act
Upon arrival Chinese brought to a “pig house” detained, only released via bribery
Head tax certificate demonstrated ones citizenship
Experienced discrimination in almost every aspect of life
British families were given land for free, while Chinese required to pay head tax
July 1st 1923- Chinese first group within Canada excluded because of race- for 24 yrs
Took away Chinese right to return to Canada if you left Canada without returning for
2 yrs
Tax pays at times died of starvation
Chinese went to war to prove their citizenship and to demand rights and inclusion w/i
society
Wives and children of Chinese deemed as citizens were able to come to Canada
1947 Chinese immigration act repealed
1982- PM Trudeau introduced new charter- sought inclusion of Chinese under Charter
Approx. 23 million dollars, collected from over 81, 000 Chinese immigrants
Groups sought individual compensation, apology and guarantee this doesn’t reoccur
When gov instituted the head tax initially they were not forced to pay
1994- gov decides not to grant financial compensation for Chinese Canadians; state
resources will be used to improve current problems
Chinese file a law suit
Suit went to SCC; turned down – charter cannot be retroactively be used, and applied
to the Chinese head tax
No Chinese entered Canada btwn 1923-1947 only after the war
Canadian gov has so far refused to change its policy surrounding Head Tax
compensation
Dimensions of Racism- Control of “settled land” the racialization of space
Techniques of Land control
1. Ownership restrictions
2. Segregation
3. Persecution
4. Expulsion
Outcome: economic marginalization for radicalized groups and the initiation of an ethno-
racial hierarchy
Redress movement was denied when case taken to SCC
Leading up the appeal, claim heard in Ont. Superior Court- justice unable to help;
charter wouldn’t be applied retrospectively
Community continued to politically lobby
Have not received a formal apology within the House or any compensation
Techniques of Land Control
Ownership Restrictions
land in Canada and the USA is considered a form of private property
‘crown land’ include areas like parks
Means the Property can be owned, transferred, severed and sold at a profit
Form of private capital
Originally, land was used as a means to sustain the group rather than the individual-
not private property
Land isn’t necessarily privately held in all countries; some countries only allow you to
occupy, or rent the land, ultimately its state owned
Private property is a social construct that applies in terms of land control in Canada
Land becomes a source of wealth and potential accumulation of wealth for an
individual
Many ways in which land can be controlled even in a private property regime
1. One can deny access to land; state can refuse to grant or sell land
2. Denied access to the means that make ones land valuable
3. Persecution of the person who owns the land; makes the use untenable- cant
stay
4. Expelled from the land by authorities; evicted or expropriated
Canada began to develop its transportation infrastructure through the construction of
the railroad
Land became valuable; could move raw resources to markets quickly
Railway critical to securing lands from aboriginal peoples and moving white settlers
onto it
Radicalized hierarchy created by controlling the ascendancy, accumulation of
wealth of certain ethno cultural groups; dominant group retains control
when a country is made up of many cultural groups, each should be
represented
British offered free-slaves land and money if they fought on Britain’s side vs
America, however they only got 20 acres of un-farmable land while whites received
120 acres of farmable land
Racialization of space- manifest itself in refusing to sell or trade with blacks, left
population vulnerable to white land owners who hired them at low wages
Results in Racial tensions; blacks being accused as undercutting white wages
In period during and after Underground railroad, blacks forbidden to purchase land or
hold licenses; not considered citizens; in a period where land had been given to
settlers
Segregation
Africville contained garbage dumps, slaughter houses, railway line, hosp. For
infectious diseases
City refused to estb. Waterline, sewage systems and building permits to improve the
quality of life
this created a slum that took on a racialized other existence legitimating the
treatment by the dominant group; self-fulfilling prophecy
this shows us the dominant group uses law in relations to land to racialize the
space and justify taking the land
having a place to call home was not important to the gov.
Africville residents argued that this was their home when being evicted, but
told it was a slum so they had to leave
Archival records display that at no point that there was any reason that the
destruction of the Africville should be carried out or justified, just f the sake of
industrialization.
At no point did it occur to the city that it was home to a people, that it was wrong and
a violation of the people.
moved to an integrated neighbourhood
they were now renting houses, no longer home owners
Restricted covenants; you cannot sell property to certain people; commonly jews,
“objectionable race” legal until 1950
Systemic racism plays out in the way in which police deal with black male youths in
their own neighbourhoods
Black youths are stereotyped as violent, more prone to crime, therefore must be
watched more closely; routinely stopped
Often treated differently by police because of the stereotype
This evokes a hostile response which in turn reinforced the acceptation that they are
prone to violence; thus a self fulfilling prophecy
Persecution
Persecution is used to restrict movement, or drive people out. Jews, blacks, Chinese
and Japanese Canadians have all been subjected to this kind of treatment.
lacks were encouraged to leave once the civil war ended in the USA, and they left
because conditions here were worse than expected.
Means for government to control land
To restrict movement or drive them out
In the late 1790s the situation with blacks were so bad that many black left to sierra
Leone
Blacks were encouraged to leave when the civil war ended in the us
Life experiences here were worse than anticipated that in US
By 1920 the Japanese community were to be seen as large economic threats, that
the BC government eliminated almost half of their fishing licenses
Riots in BC lead feds to pass the continuous journey rule
Toronto- put signs up where the dominant group didn’t want to see Jews; signs in the
beaches