Historical origins: emerged late 1800s, allopaths and other practitioners, humoral theory four elements (hot/cold/wet/dry) Health = balance between four elements therapeutics based on priniciple of opposites. Heroic medicine" laboratory studies bacteriology and germ theory doctrine of specific etiology. Characteristics: emphasizes biological causes of disease, health = absence of disease, mechanistic (standardization symptoms and physiological measurements, orientation curative, hospital based, hierarchical relationship (doctor/patient, emphasis on biological research. Disease = unwanted aberration that unbalances equilibrium of body therapeutics involve a multidimensional approach (diet, exercise, physical therapy, and naturopathic remedies) Pays attention to the emotional, psychological and spiritual dimensions of health, alongside the physcial. Not covered by universal health care dependent upon fee for service. Medicalization--process by which human conditions and problems come to be defined and treated as medical conditions and thus come under the authority of doctors and other health professionals to study, diagnose and treat.