Lecture 3 Folic acid and Sulphonamides.docx

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Biological Sciences
Ken Scott

Lecture 3 Folic acid and Sulphonamides Friday, 21 September 2012 10:00 p.m. Folic Acid: Folic acid:  Vitamin B9  Complex structure made of glutamic acid, p-aminobenzonic acid and pteridine derivative. The pteridine contains a conjugated fused ring.  Sources include liver, spinach, citrus, fresh vegetables, not found in animal products such as milk, meat and eggs.  You can get some folate from intestinal bacteria  Destroyed by cooking  Body reserves are 20mg  Daily intake is about 500-700 micrograms  Daily requirement is about 100-200 micrograms or 400+ micrograms is pregnant or undergoing/undergone trauma.  A structural component of purines, pyrimidines and the nucleotides derived from them.  Important in C1 transfer reactions. Folic acid deficiency:  Folate levels are usually okay in a normal diet though poor dietary habits can lead to folate deficiency eg alcoholism.  Folate deficiency in non alcoholics can be due to impaired absorption or metabolism or increased need for the vitamin eg pregnancy  Causes anaemia in various forms, both white and red blood cells are affected because of the failure to synthesis DNA when the blood cells are created.  Anaemia in megablastic and macrocytic form, as there is no DNA synthesis results in large RBC with many nuclei due to no division. Folic acid deficiency time line:  3 weeks: serum folic acid low  18 weeks: low RBC folic acid  19 weeks: megablastic bone marrow  20 weeks: Frank anaemia Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy:  30-60% of pregnant women are deficient though only 2-5% in developed countries. Dietary supplement recommended can prevent 50% or more neural tube defects (NTD) such  as spina bifida and anencephaly.  Recommended to increase folic acid intake to 800 microgram a day about 1 month before contraception and continuing through the first trimester. Effect of folate deficiency on metabolic processes:  Effects DNA synthesis as the nucleotides can not be formed, synthesis is inhibited by lack of folate.  Impaired dTMP synthesis leads to the arrest of rapidly proliferating cells such as hematopoietic cells, this is a serious and rapid effect the blood cells leading to severe anaemia. Folic acid in metabolic reactions:  Folic acid is used in 1Carbon transfers which are important in the biosynthesis of 2 deoxythymidylate (dTMP) and purines such as serine, glycine, his
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