Lecture 6 Nitrogen digestion 2.docx

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Biological Sciences
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Ken Scott

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Lecture 6 Nitrogen digestion 2 Friday, 28 September 2012 9:50 p.m. Vitamin B6:  Pyridoxal phosphate is a derivative of pyridoxine (B6)  Its major role is as a cofactor in transamination reactions  Present in meat, cereals, fruits and vegetables  Daily requirement 3 micrograms, dietary recommendation 100mg, toxic at levels of >100mg daily.  Deficiencies rare, symptoms often neurological, mainly occurs in alcoholic and elderly people  Several forms of B6 Ammonia: Very toxic   Transported from muscles to liver combined with pyruvate to form alanine  Transported from brain to liver combined with glutamate to form glutamine  Ammonia reconverted in liver and detoxified to form urea. Carbomyl phosphate:  Mitochondrial reaction  CO2 + NH4+  Requires 2 ATP  Created by carbomyl phosphate synthase - biotin dependent as the cofactor  Used in the urea cycle with ornithine to produce citulline. Urea cycle: Refer to diagram Comparative biochemistry of nitrogen excretion:  Humans are urotelic, we excrete most our nitrogen waste as urea. Urea is non toxic compared to extremely toxic ammonia and it is water soluble.  Urea is fi
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