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175 .101 (3)

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175 .101
Dr.Ross Flett

Psychology as a Social Science 175.101 09/09/13 Psychological Disorders The Vulnerability/Diathesis Stress Model – Proposes 3 fundamental causes for psychological disorders.  Predisposing Causes – Genetics/environment/social background  Precipitating Causes – A trigger, causes by prevailing or dominant negative aspects of life.  Maintaining Causes – Responsible for the prevalence of illness once it has started. It is generally accepted that a low predisposition to disorder means that a higher amount of stress across various aspects of life is required to trigger a psychological disorder. In the same way, a high predisposition to disorder means that only a lower amount of stress is required to trigger the disorder. Abnormal Behaviour – How do we make judgments?  Observe distressing behaviour in an inappropriate contextual situation.  Dysfunctional behaviour of which appears to have no meaning or logical understanding through which to explain it.  Unusual behaviour – cultural sense e.g. important to observe and be impartial to differences in cultural behaviour in observe how that behaviour is relative to the particular person’s background. Statistical sense – appears inconsistent with the majority of behaviour statistically recorded. Rosenhan, D.L (1973) - video. Focuses on the way in which being diagnosed with a mental illness affects how the person is treated. Diagnosis and treatment in psychiatric wards can result in a feeling dehumanisation or inadequacy. Diagnosis of psychological/mental disorders Use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4 ed.h th (DSM-IV) – a 5 edition is currently being developed as is due to be published in 2013. The DSM-IV lists the major diagnostic categories of mental disorders which are listed as follows:  Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence.  Substance-related disorders.  Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.  Mood disorders.  Anxiety disorders.  Somatoform disorders.  Dissociative disorders.  Sexual and gender identity disorders.  Eating disorders.  Adjustment disorders.  Personality disorders. The DSM-IV conforms to descriptive diagnosis, meaning that researchers and clinicians in many different sectors are able to diagnose patients in a similar way. However psychologists tend to search for alternative methods of diagnosis to the DSM approach as the DSM assumes that all disorders can be categorised based on similar characteristics, which is not necessarily true. The DSM-IV uses the multiaxial system of diagnosis which places symptoms into their biological and/or social context be undertaking patient evaluation across 5 axes. They are listed below. Axis I – Symptoms th
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