Shoulder & arm
1)Breed differences: inherited weakness of girdle muscles in Jerseys
Jersey breed has pectoral muscle weakness.
Stands with slightly abducted shoulder called “wing shoulder” since the shoulder and humerus are
away from the rib cage.
2)Spine of the scapula: prominent acromion
Horses have no acromion while ox has prominent acromion
3)Rudimentary subclavius – narrow neck to wide shoulder joints so the transition from neck to
shoulder is abrupt.
Horse subclavius origin: cranial part of sternum insert : cranial part of supraspinatus m so the
transition from neck to the shoulder joint is smooth.
Elbow, forearm & carpus
1)Humerus: epicondyles palpable
2)Ox Ulna is complete and fused with the radius
Compared to horse: ulna is only proximal part of shaft, while the distal end if only the radius.
3) Knock – Kneed Stance : no functional interference, just a conformation.
Stand with the carpal inward angulation and the feed are angled laterally.
4) above the elbow joint.same as horse.
5)in ox, the extensor and the flexor bifurcates to supply both digits, compared to horse only one
digit so does not bifurcate.
6)Lateral digital extensor does not divide, only common digital extensor divides.
7) carnivores: radius and intermediates are fused. Ulna then accessory
1,2,3,4,5(corresponds with ulna carpal.)
3 ,4 and 5(rudimentary)
First metacarpal is absent, 2 and 3 carpal is fused.
3 and 4 metacarpal is fused but incompletely.there is a line in the centre
but it functions as a single weight bearing bone.
Fifth metacarpal is short has no function and is fused to metacarpal 4.
1 &2,3,4 carpal
2,3, 4,5 metacarpals.
11)Hygroma: enlargement of subcutaneous busa between the extensor retinaculuma and skin.
At the carpus level, the bursa enlarges on the dorsal surface of carpus..
It is not painful, just unsightly. Horses also have this bursa. It is the same for ox and horse.
12) there is communication between the midcarpal joint and the carpometacarpal joint at the carpus
level. 13) the metacarpal 3+4 articulates withphalanges forming metacarpophalangeal joint.
There is a lateral MC-P joint for lateral digit and medial joint for medial digit.
Then on each digit there is a proximal interphalangeal joint and distal interphalangeal joint. In the ox,
the distal phalanz is known as the pedal bone.
Thus, must state according to lateral or medial digit.. example: prximal interphalangeal joint of the
Medial or lateral digit. Or distal interphalangeal joint of the proximal or distal interphalangeal joint.
14)Dew claw-contain phalangeal remnants and associated horn.
Has 2 in each limb.
May have small distal phalanges which are undeveloped and covered by horn.
Is attached to the main digit
Dew claw don’t touch the ground.
Can be seen on radiograph.
15)medial and lateral digit is covered by common skin and has an interdigital cleft
16)metacarpal- is a single metacarpal formed by the fusion of metacarpal 3 and 4 with a line in the
centre Due to incomplete fusion.
Do not confuse this as a fracture line.
17)joints.- doubled joints starting from fetlock joint- 2 fetlock joints, 2 pastern joints and 2 coffin
18)sesamoids- doubled – so 4 proximal sesamoids in each limb
-2 distal sesamoids in each limb
19) there are 4 digital extensor tendons.
a)most medial-medial tendon of common digital extensor m. – inserts onto the medial digit.
It is the proper extensor of digit 3
b)Tendon of lateral belly CDE m.-near the fetlock it splits into 2- one inserts on the medial
phalanx(3 digit) and the
c)other on the lateral phalanx(4 digit).
d)Most lateral-Tendon of lateral digital extensor m. Inserts onto the distal phalanz of the (lateral)4
digit. Is the proper extensor of 4 digit.
20)synovial structures are same as horse(=H)
Synovial structures to lubricate the tendons.
=H digital sheath for flexor tendons.
Synovial structures include bursae and complex digital sheath.
21) proximal sesamoid bones provide smoot passage for tendons arounds fetlock
- annular ligaments hold them in place.
21)the SDF –DDF- and interosseus – share a digital sheath. Same as horse.
Borders of digital sheath are- distal 1/3 cannon to navicular bone.
Digital sheath is for lubrication of the flexor tendons. SDF and DDF splits into two for the the two digits.
22)suspensory ligament.- inserts to the abaxial surface of the sesamoid bones.
The dorsal extension od the suspensory ligament.- the branch winds around the the abaxial surface
of the prox phalanges to merge with the common extensor tendon.
Provided by the 5 (central branch), they pass through the interdigital space, wind around the axial
surfaces of the phalanges, and merge in the same tendons.?? Page 733
after the abaxial surface of insertion there is an abaxial and axial branch to joint the common digital
It is duplicated in the other digit as well.
Band of interosseus – from midway from metacarpal bone to attach to SDF
23) the proxima and distal interdigital ligament – connect the two digits, prevents the separation of
the two digits.
1) Function of the extensor branches of suspensory ligament
2) Why is the proximal sesamoid the most fractured bone( similar to horse)
3) Suspensory apparatus vs suspensory ligament
24)As horse, dermis is divided into 5 regions
b) coronet- coronary got papillae
c)laminar dermis- appearance leaflets
5)dermis of the bulb(no frog)
25)Ox- no frog
Anterior to the heel bulb is a strip of thick horn
Solar area is smal