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280 .201 (2)

Lecture 1 on Metabolism

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280 .201
Dr.Martin Dickens

Metabolism Notes 280.201 Notes Metabolism (Lecture 1) Microorganisms Require Energy: because they work against entropy They require entropy for growth and multiplication including the synthesis of new cellular materials. They also require energy for mobility – the flipping of flagella required ATP. It is also required for active transport of materials into cell and repair cellular damage. Production of Energy The energy is from the nutrients in their environment. Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within a living cell Metabolism reactions can be categorised as: - Catabolic (breaking down molecules) - Anabolic (building up molecules) NB: Catabolic reactions are used to get energy out of food and anabolic reactions are used for growth and multiplication of microbes and the synthesis of new cellular molecules of these microbes. Energy Sources Chemotroph Breaking down complex molecules using oxidation –reduction reactions Phototroph Use light to produce food Heterotroph Small organic compound molecules are taken in from the outside to be utilised Autotroph Use carbon dioxide to fix into sugars Most bacteria, all fungi, protozoa and animals are chemoheterotrophs: they use organic molecules and them oxidise them. Catabolism This is where complicated organic molecules are broken down into simple molecules that can be utilised by the microorganism. They are degradative reactions. They are generally hydrolytic reactions so use water to break bonds. Energy is released through the breaking of these bonds (exergonic). - the larger the compound the higher the energy content - sugars are broken down into carbon dioxide and water Metabolism Notes 280.201 Notes Anabolism These are examples of biosynthetic reactions that are often dehydration synthesis reactions that release water. These reactions consume energy (endergonic). During these reactions simple substances are built up to complex organic substances Examples: Simple Substance Complex Organic Substance Bonds Formed Amino Acids Proteins Peptide Bonds Nucleotides Nucleic Acid Phosphate Bonds Sugars Polysaccharides/Starches Glycosidic Bonds All these simple substances undergo polymerisation to form the complex organic substances Most organisms Link the Reactions - the catabolic reactions drive the anabolic reactions The energy is achieved by Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), which is how energy is conserved in cells Adenosine Tri-phosphates During catabolic reactions ATP is synthesised and during anabolic reactions ATP is hydrolysed. Driving a Cell’s Metabolism Most metabolism reaction rates are too slow at room temperature, therefore catalysts are used to speed up the reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts that are made of proteins. They lower the activation energy of biological reactions to speed up the rate. The function and specificity of the enzyme is related directly to the protein structure. Some specific RNA molecules, ribozymes are also catalytic. Metabolism Notes 280.201 Notes Enzyme Structure Four Levels of Protein Structure Primary The amino acid sequence Se
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