Lecture 3: The role of management Chapter 15
Key focuses of this lecture:
- Management and leadership
- Leadership theories
1. The role of management and leadership
* Organizations are connections of people who achieve things together
* Management (p10) is the attainment of organization goals in an effective and efficient manner
through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organization resources. The people are also
* Management: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Understanding the relationships that
make up the group, and understanding individuals, and connecting them together. Not attacking
people for their behaviour.
Leadership is inevitable
* Always those who make things happen – the movers and shakers. Sometimes they are mangers-
* Every society has its own leadership traditions and practices. For instance leadership in the Maori
society is different to leadership in a Chinese society.
* Maori leadership has ideas in common with western concepts of authority, motivation and
incentives. There is only one word in Maori to mean leadership and management.
* People in relationship constituting an organisation
* Need leadership first, then management
* Management alone is inadequate
* Primacy of management is common in mechanistic organisations
* Leadership that reflects the needs of the people in the organisation, as mechanistic leadership
does not work. Alternatives include Transformational Leadership and Servant Leadership.
- The influential increment;
- The process of influencing other to achieve task related goals.
- This can be done in different ways;
Directly: commanding, directing, requesting, demonstrating, cajoling, entreating, bribing Indirectly: coaching, building self-esteem, teamwork, delegating responsibility
- Leadership involves power and relationships. People seeking for deeper meaning
- A model that works better than discredited mechanistic theory which ignores the
wholeness of people
- Makes a difference to us as individuals, to other individuals, organisational outcomes
Keys to success from Stephen Tindall
- Has a philosophy to people and keeps by It.; the idea that everybody is equal-
everybody is the same. He’s a good manager; doesn’t put himself before others.
- The price and marketing is also that, but the service is the key. If there are no people to
buy, obviously the price won’t be the biggest matter.
- If you put people before profits, the profits get better, but people have trouble accepting
that fact. And society often puts people second, hence the hierarchy.
- If you can spark off goodness in the community- obviously it’s heading somewhere good.
- Hard working; but takes breaks away from people, work- having a hobby to balance it all
out. Separates the day. Plans his time carefully.
- Concentrates on connections, within his work, and within his suppliers and contacts.
Leadership can come from anyone, not necessarily people with high status or particular expertise;
it’s best to think leadership is a shared responsibility.
Some people are born leaders; but anyone can lead. It may be easy for someone, and very
difficult for another, but still is possible.
Leadership and management
Is a position; an activity that a leader does and a characteristic of a leader- really strong, perhaps,
maybe their mannerisms, etc.
“Leadership complements management and does not replace it” – John Kotter
- Leadership is about setting and discussing a direction- Management is aligning and
motivating those people to move in that direction, and therefore creating a leadership
culture (through plan/control, organising/staffing, problem solving etc.).
- Developing leader managers: Some are gifted as leaders and are hopeless managers;
vice-versa. Very few are gifted with both. Developing leadership capability
Baseline capability + drive to be a leader + choice of arena to lead in, account for most leadership.
“Leaders are born and made; Depends on genetic predisposition, family, school, hardship, job
experiences, bosses and training- lays the foundation or baseline capabilities.” – J Conger
* Research suggests that successful leadership performance can be attributed to experience and
coaching and not just to in-born talent or early life experiences
* New Zealanders’ ideas of outstanding leadership: inspiration (emotional, optimistic and
confident), reinforcement-orientation, vision, decisiveness, integrity
How to lead?
* There is no ‘how-to-do-it’ of leadership.
* Some people appear to have ‘natural’ gifts of leadership:
- They appear to know intuitively, or to have learned from experience what will work in a
* Most leaders recognise that:
- Individuals are unique and respond differently.
- Situations are unique and bring their own special challenges to management
Leadership is based on personal characteristics; what personality traits are ‘leadership’ traits?
* Research in this area has had only modest success; the suggested traits are:
- Ambition, self-confidence, honesty, intelligence, and knowledge of the job
- Some of these characteristics are extremely difficult to measure.
- The vast variance in leadership ability cannot really be explained by personal traits.
Leadership in terms of style:
- Looking at leaders for the kinds of things they do on the job.
Leaders tend to be consistent; 2 dimensions:
- behaviours directed at completing group’s tasks
- behaviours directed at looking after group members
* These are independent of each other:
- they are not opposites, nor mutually exclusive - leaders may be high on both behaviours, on either, or on neither
* Both dimensions are important.
The managerial grid
* Appropriate leadership varies according to the situation.
* Practices effective in one situation may be ineffective in another.
* Leadership must be adjusted to suit.
* We need to consider:
- characteristics of those being led
- nature of the task, and the leader’s familiarity with it
- the formal power of the leader
- expertise in both leader and group, and the personal relations between them
- commitment of group members to the organisation
* Leadership is situational Manager Subordinates
perception(backgroundand experience) Personality,independenceneed
valuesystem readinessto beresponsible
Confidencein subordinates ambiguitytolerated
LeadershipInclinations expectto sharedecision