BSNS105 Lecture 3 2013 Semester 1

9 Pages

Business Studies
Course Code
Diane Ruwhiu

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Lecture 3: The role of management Chapter 15 Key focuses of this lecture: - Management and leadership - Leadership theories 1. The role of management and leadership * Organizations are connections of people who achieve things together * Management (p10) is the attainment of organization goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organization resources. The people are also resources. * Management: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Understanding the relationships that make up the group, and understanding individuals, and connecting them together. Not attacking people for their behaviour. Leadership is inevitable * Always those who make things happen – the movers and shakers. Sometimes they are mangers- not always. * Every society has its own leadership traditions and practices. For instance leadership in the Maori society is different to leadership in a Chinese society. * Maori leadership has ideas in common with western concepts of authority, motivation and incentives. There is only one word in Maori to mean leadership and management. Organic organisations * People in relationship constituting an organisation * Need leadership first, then management * Management alone is inadequate * Primacy of management is common in mechanistic organisations * Leadership that reflects the needs of the people in the organisation, as mechanistic leadership does not work. Alternatives include Transformational Leadership and Servant Leadership. Defined: - The influential increment; - The process of influencing other to achieve task related goals. - This can be done in different ways; Directly: commanding, directing, requesting, demonstrating, cajoling, entreating, bribing Indirectly: coaching, building self-esteem, teamwork, delegating responsibility - Leadership involves power and relationships. People seeking for deeper meaning - A model that works better than discredited mechanistic theory which ignores the wholeness of people - Makes a difference to us as individuals, to other individuals, organisational outcomes Keys to success from Stephen Tindall - Has a philosophy to people and keeps by It.; the idea that everybody is equal- everybody is the same. He’s a good manager; doesn’t put himself before others. - The price and marketing is also that, but the service is the key. If there are no people to buy, obviously the price won’t be the biggest matter. - If you put people before profits, the profits get better, but people have trouble accepting that fact. And society often puts people second, hence the hierarchy. - If you can spark off goodness in the community- obviously it’s heading somewhere good. - Hard working; but takes breaks away from people, work- having a hobby to balance it all out. Separates the day. Plans his time carefully. - Concentrates on connections, within his work, and within his suppliers and contacts. 2. Leadership Leadership can come from anyone, not necessarily people with high status or particular expertise; it’s best to think leadership is a shared responsibility. Some people are born leaders; but anyone can lead. It may be easy for someone, and very difficult for another, but still is possible. Leadership and management Is a position; an activity that a leader does and a characteristic of a leader- really strong, perhaps, maybe their mannerisms, etc. “Leadership complements management and does not replace it” – John Kotter - Leadership is about setting and discussing a direction- Management is aligning and motivating those people to move in that direction, and therefore creating a leadership culture (through plan/control, organising/staffing, problem solving etc.). - Developing leader managers: Some are gifted as leaders and are hopeless managers; vice-versa. Very few are gifted with both. Developing leadership capability Baseline capability + drive to be a leader + choice of arena to lead in, account for most leadership. “Leaders are born and made; Depends on genetic predisposition, family, school, hardship, job experiences, bosses and training- lays the foundation or baseline capabilities.” – J Conger * Research suggests that successful leadership performance can be attributed to experience and coaching and not just to in-born talent or early life experiences * New Zealanders’ ideas of outstanding leadership: inspiration (emotional, optimistic and confident), reinforcement-orientation, vision, decisiveness, integrity How to lead? * There is no ‘how-to-do-it’ of leadership. * Some people appear to have ‘natural’ gifts of leadership: - They appear to know intuitively, or to have learned from experience what will work in a given situation. * Most leaders recognise that: - Individuals are unique and respond differently. - Situations are unique and bring their own special challenges to management Trait theories Leadership is based on personal characteristics; what personality traits are ‘leadership’ traits? * Research in this area has had only modest success; the suggested traits are: - Ambition, self-confidence, honesty, intelligence, and knowledge of the job - Some of these characteristics are extremely difficult to measure. - The vast variance in leadership ability cannot really be explained by personal traits. Style theories Leadership in terms of style: - Looking at leaders for the kinds of things they do on the job. Leaders tend to be consistent; 2 dimensions: - behaviours directed at completing group’s tasks - behaviours directed at looking after group members * These are independent of each other: - they are not opposites, nor mutually exclusive - leaders may be high on both behaviours, on either, or on neither * Both dimensions are important. The managerial grid Situational theories * Appropriate leadership varies according to the situation. * Practices effective in one situation may be ineffective in another. * Leadership must be adjusted to suit. * We need to consider: - characteristics of those being led - nature of the task, and the leader’s familiarity with it - the formal power of the leader - expertise in both leader and group, and the personal relations between them - commitment of group members to the organisation * Leadership is situational Manager Subordinates perception(backgroundand experience) Personality,independenceneed valuesystem readinessto beresponsible Confidencein subordinates ambiguitytolerated LeadershipInclinations expectto sharedecision Security competent Style experience Situation Typeof organisation GroupEffectiveness NatureofProblem
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