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University of Otago
Maori Studies
Susan Duncan

Maori 102 Course Reading – Ki Te Whaiao: An Introduction to Māori Culture and Society th Lecture 1 – 12 July 2012 Reading: Te tīmatanga mai o ngā atua – Creation Narratives. Michael P.J. Reilly Introductory Points  Māori = indigenous people of NZ - Also means normal, common, usual - They were common and the Europeans were different - Homogenises a wide range of people that were distinct  Before other people came to NZ, Māori identity was based on the tribe you belonged to. It wasn’t until outsiders came to NZ the Māori had to define themselves as a collective group. The term Māori became the way to describe themselves  When the European arrived Maori called them Pakeha - Pākeha = ghosts or fairies - When white people arrived to Aotearoa they thought they were fairies  Tarara Tribes Ngāti and Ngāi mean “descendants of” this ancestor (plus Kai, Te Uri o, Te Whānau A) There are also ones that are Te Rarawa (consumers of the houses of the dead). This comes from the event where the tribe went into a village and attacked them and ate them. Because of this event the tribe got the name. It is important to know that each of these groups have a distinct beliefs and traditions. The Use of the Macron  Tells us that it is an elongated vowel sound when you say it.  These are really important and if you do not use it you can stuff up the meaning of a word - Keke - Kekē - Kēkē - All of these mean different things Creation of our world  Putting into a story the way we should behave  Way of explaining and understanding how we should interact with the world Ngā Puhi & Ngāti Kahungunu  Io – 13 generations/phases - Debate about whether or not this was an adaptation of Maori traditions to the European world - Io has no gender  Idea of an energy that transformed itself from nothing through 13 phases of evolution to essentially matter  Eventually through changes Io created through nothing this realm of beings called Atua - “Atua” = God or gods - Maori perspective would rather call them ancestors  Created 2 gods (atua) (1) Ranginui (Rangi) - Sky father (2) Paptūānuku (Papa) - Earth Mother Fell in love and held on to each other and had lots of children. Tane is the one that pushes the parents apart Tānemahuta (Tāne)  Separated his parents  Atua of the forest  Clothed his mother in forest  Massive role in a lot of Maori traditions as he is seen as very powerful Tāwhirimatea (Tāwhiri)  Against his parents being separated  Fled to the sky to be with his father  Atua of the winds  Attacks his brother  This is the way we explain the weather Tangaroa  In this version, he is pretty tame  Atua of the sea  His children include marine life and amphibians  In many pacific cultures Tangaroa has the important role Tūmatauenga (Tū)  Stood up to his brother Tāwhiri  Atua of humans and human nature (ability to fend for ourselves i.e. food, and protection i.e. war)  Maori name of the NZ Army is Ngati Tumatauenga  Punishes his brothers by eating them and their descendants (utu)  “Utu” it is the act of retribution Minor Characters Rongomātane (Rongo) and Haumietiketike (Haumie/Hau)  Earth mother pulled them into her to take care of them and protect them (hid them) Rongo – atua of the kumara (cultivated foods) Haumie – atua of the aruhe uncultivated foods(wild foods) Rūaumoko (Rū)  Was not born when his parents were separated  Atua of earthquakes and volcanoes Therefore they use these characters to turn into a tradition so that they have a way of interacting Ngai Tahu Tradition  Dialectal difference all Ng is changed to K  They are called Kai Tahu In this version  Reflects this tribes relationship with the ocean  Takaroa has been elevated  All the characters had been born prior to this event happening.  Raki is the one that initiates the separation because he does not want to continue life like this. All the brothers come together to separate the parents Papa is one of Raki’s (Rangi) several wives. Takaroa (Tangaroa) is Papa’s first husband, Raki initiates the separation and all the brother separate the parents Te Ao Marama: World of Light Note: we will be taking this from the northern perspective Tāne mahuta Our gods created other spiritual beings, but they couldn’t make human. Tane wanted to make human life so he went to his brothers and they said that you need to create a woman from the clay of our mother. Creates a male element – Tikiahua (personification of Tanes penis) this explains why we have mucus etc. Hine-hau-one (woman who was born from the dirt – first woman)  Tāne takes her as his wife  They begin to have children Hine-ti-tama (dawn maiden)  Tāne’s daughter he marries  Tawhiri sends a message to Hine “who’s your father” - She asks her husband who her father - Tane tells her that he is her father - She says to him, takes her avenge on him “you will remain here in the world of the living, I will go to the underworld. I will become the goddess of death and greet children when they die” - She becomes Hine-nui-te-po the goddess of the night This may be extreme but is the reason why we die – Tāne’s sin. Maui Traditions The Birth of Aotearoa  Maui is the youngest - Likes to push the boundaries - Brothers wanted to go fishing; told Maui to stay at home and he hides in the canoe - Brought his own rope and a jawbone from a wise old woman - Smashes his face and uses the blood as bait - Pulls up the North Island  South Island is his canoe  Stewart Island is the Anchor This is about the connection we have with this place, explanations how this place came to exist. What does all this mean? It is the idea that the earth is our mother  Explains our natural world - Our science before science came along and how we could pass knowledge on to our children  Principles, beliefs and concepts - Ethical system, law, resource management system are all embedded Myth messages/Theme Whakapapa = genealogy  “Whaka” turns it into a doing word  “To create layers” our way of creating our world; idea of interconnectiveness  Creates a responsibility for kinship - Responsibility to all natural things that are all connected that are part of our mythology - Overarching principle of Te Reo Maori - Obligation to take care of our kin and this extends beyond human relationships - Maori – spiritual and physical worlds are not separate from each other Complementary nature of sexes Male forms of behaviour Philosophical dimensions  See pages 9-12 Week Two Lecture 2 - 17 July 2012 Cultural Concepts and Maori Worldview – Part One Tikanga Māori  Māori way of doing things  Tika – correct, natural  According to laws of tapu and noa - The two concepts of law it is based on  Has pragmatic/practical applications - This is done for a reason - System of occupational safety and health  Element of faith What is a Māori Worldview?  A framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it  “Māori worldview is holistic and cyclic” One in which every person is linked to every living thing and to the atua. Māori customary concepts are interconnected through a whakapapa (genealogical structure) - (Ka’ai & Higgins 2004, p.13) (one mark in exam) - Holistic: the understanding that all things within a system (physical, biological, social, mental, spiritual) can not be determined or explained as parts alone - Cyclic: Harmony and balance This is our utopia; everything is balanced. Example of balance – The two whenua  Whenua = land  Whenua = placenta Both of these things provide nourishment for life. Land is in the land of the living, placenta is nourishment when we are in the womb in the whare tangata.  Common māori practice to bury placenta; return the whenua to the whenua  When Māori die they are returned to the whenua  Therefore that which gives life – then consumes it  See back to Hine-te-tama However, now we have a very modern issue where 10,000’s Māori living around the world but want to be returned to NZ but this is very expensive. Where do these beliefs come from? Creation narratives  Atua provie the foundation  Whakapapa is the key concept – it ties us to nature and us to each other Therefore by definition trees are our first cousins; this sends the idea of what this means how we interact with trees. Four Cultural Concepts Whakapapa Binding force with Te Taha Kiko Kiko [physical world] and Te Taha Wairua [spiritual side] – whakapapa brings the physical into the spiritual and vice versa. For Māori these cross over all the time  Extends beyond human relationships into connections between humans and their universe - Because whakapapa is intricately woven, defining individual customary concepts are very hard to define, each concept is defined by its relationship with other concepts and not in isolation  Gives us a sense of place – sense of belonging  “I belong, therefore I am” - Belong to a place, people larger system than myself  Our existence is dependent on others  “I am because, they were and because I am, they are” (Jackie Carter 2000, p 267) Because she exists today they continue to live through her Māori primary cultural concepts are layered one on another through whakapapa as are personal relationships. The concepts fall into 3 broad categories (1) social institutions (2) social relationships and (3) spiritual and physical relationships. Language is central to the Māori world view, it is the life blood of the Mori culture and is related to politics mauri and mana. Te Reo Māori is the link between knowledge and meaning, and teacher and student Tapu, mana and noa Interconnected  Guide us and give meaning to different aspects of the world  The concepts fall into the category “social relationships” - The readings here are not very good but read the extra readings  While this has a spiritual belief it is about the land of the living and how we interact with everything such as the environment and other people - Unwritten rules of the social game - It was learned not written down and how you have learnt to interact with people - Learned, developed and created a system of how to interact Tapu  Basic definition – “sacred, set apart, special”  But it is a much more complex concept  Is power and influence from the atua - This places this value and importance on it - We were scared of our atua Two parts of Tapu (1) Intrinsic  Everything has an intrinsic tapu  God has created you thus you have tapu - The forest from Tane - The sea from Tangaroa (2) Extrinsic  Extensions (extrinsic) of tapu  Extend the concept onto particular contexts and this creates a system of rules around it. It is the thing that you extend it onto depends on whether you have a positive or negative tapu  This is where all the rules come into play  Controls interactions  Positive: to keep safe – really want to take care of something  Negative: something you want to be kept safe from Example – extend tapu onto a person  Descends from atua  Can change over time  Head is very tapu - The head is very important; recognised that this is where we stored our knowledge  When a woman is a virgin  When a woman is menstruating  When a woman is pregnant  When a woman who can no longer have a child Tapu of places Areas of significance Wāhi tapu (wāhi = place)  Urupā – cemeteries - Death has a very strong negative tapu  Events – wars, historical significance  Particularly when associated with the dea  Related to narratives Mt Cook – Aoraki  The South Island is viewed as the waka of Aoraki  Tried to stretch it up to the heavens but was turned to stone  Generally this means that we do not like people to stand on the top of the Mountain because it is viewed as people’s head. It is that element of tapu and the extension of tapu to that place that created that system of rules and prohbitions Tapu of objects – extension to objects Have value  Historical  Made from precious stone  Represent mana Pukaki (on the 10c coin)  Carving of him was a gateway to a path, he was eventually dismantled and put in a museum  This carving represents mana; the power, the authority that Pukaki had as a person and the tribe he was related to  There was controversy when the image was put on money Mana The social structure of Māori society is based upon whakapapa because people descend from the atua and a persons individual mana therefore depends on these descent lines.  Power, authority – gives somebody their place in society  Sources/types of mana - Mana atua If you are the eldest (all the way back) then your whakapapa is tuakana/senior line. This means you have a personal extension of the atua, therefore the power that they have can extend to you. The people that have these are those in the higher strings of society (i.e. Chief lines) but we do have the Te Heu Heu family with a high level of mana atua. - Mana tūpuna More prevalent in society. They are your more immediate ancestors; power or authority from the deeds of your ancestors. You gain power from the work of your ancestors - Mana whenua Rights or responsibilities or access to that piece of land, by having that resource you gain a little status with that. - Mana tangata Mana that you gain from the people around you – your followers, by people supporting your acts they are giving you mana tangata. It is not about ego or what you think of yourself but what other people think of you Noa  Most misunderstood concept  Inaccurately “profane, polluting”  REALLY: Ordinary, mundane, everyday - It is what balances everything out - You must be free of restriction to be able to live  The process counteracts/lifts/opposes tapu - Whakanoa - The ways of removing tapu (i.e. removing tapu of death)  Most common forms: - Water - Food Example: boy uses the water to cleanse himself of the negative tapu of death. Dichotomy of tapu and noa Therefore we created a system of balance and rules that we didn’t get injured and sick.  Raw food is tapu, cooked food is noa - When people were eating raw food they were getting sick - Same with seafood - You did not eat raw food - The Pakeha ate raw food – seen as spiritual beings  Traditional knowledge is tapu, contemporary knowledge is noa - Preserve our traditional knowledge  Formal occasions are tapu, informal occasions are noa Tapu and Noa examples – Head  Do not pass food over the head (t/n)  Do not sit on things associated with the head (t/n) - Pillows  Do not put things associated with your head on places where food is served (t/n) - Hats - Brushes Death  Pregnant woman should not enter urupā (t/t) - Do not want two tapu’s to interact  When leaving an urupā, wash hands and sprinkle water on yourself (t/n)  Food should not be taken into a urupā (t/n) These show that we still want to preserve that place as a tapu – therefore do not Food  Menstruating women should not gather food (t/n)  Should not be taken into wāhi tapu (t/n) - Taking bbq up Mt Taranaki  Should not be near books or objects containing whakapapa (t/n)  Tea towels/dish clothes should be washed separately from other clothing and linen (t/n) When Pukaki when on money and that money went to buy food, the people were consulted and the reserve bank had to collect them back until Lecture 3 – 19 July 2012 Review of points from last lecture  Tapu is an intrinsic value that descends from the atua  The extensions of tapu are the restrictions  Extended to harmful contexts = negative  Extended to special contexts = positive  The ‘types’ of mana, are different ways of acquiring mana  Tapu and mana command respect  Noa lifts restrictions of tapu, in positive and negative ways Māori Worldview Time and Space  Mua (time = past, space = front)  Muri (time = future, space = behind) Look to the past to prepare for the future These precedents are set by tūpuna, our foundations. Therefore “Māori time”, is time/history according to an order of events Utu Reciprocity of actions  Revenge: Seeks retribution for a challenge to somebody’s mana and tapu – Hara  When a balance is achieve – ea  Modern usage = Price of something HARA UTU EA Wairua  Soul or life-force  Implanted in the embryo by the parents  When the eyes form in the foetus – the wairua begins it’s existence  Wairua is attached to an entity for its life According to Best (1941:302)  Part of the whole person, not located in any particular place  It is immortal and exists after death  It has the power to warn individuals  It is subject to attack Te Rerenga Wairua (Cape Reinga) The Departing place of the souls Mauri  All objects have a mauri  Life principle – gives existence, holds together  Can be strengthened and diminished  Whakanoa ritual of cooking can change a mauri or release it from an object  Creates issues around organ transplants Manaaki  Underpins all aspects of tikanga Māori  Caring for each other  “Common good”  Not treating people as a means to an end, rather they are the end  An ideal that is difficult to achieve Māori Cultural Concepts Today Tikanga Māori  Is present throughout Aotearoa  Not only in Māori settings Traditional use v Contemporary use  Modernity brings new challenges  Genetic modification Research  Historically, Māori did not participate in research of their own culture  Knowledge is tapu  Today: - Research ethics ask for these to be consideration of tikanga Māori - Tauutuutu – The community researched as benefitted by the research - Mana – the mana of the community is respected and not damaged Legislation Over 80 pieces of legislation are tapu  Fisheries Act 1996  Resource Management Act 1991  Historic Places Act 1993  Climate Change Response 2002  Education Act 1989  Bio Security Act 1993  Overseas Investment Act 2005 Health Recognition of concepts of tapu in guidelines  Permission to touch the head  Ensuring bodily fluids and containers that are used for bodily fluids are not placed on food serving areas  The option to take “body parts” away to be disposed of in a culturally appropriate way Hospitals Whānau rooms  Where relatives can stay  This can last for several weeks  Mortuaries have adopted the same type of rooms  Funeral Homes Police  Written into a majority of Police Guidelines are Māori concepts  Māori liason officers  Tapu- lifting ceremonies - Death in public places i.e. road accidents and murders Adoption of Tikanga Dawn Ceremonies  Opening of buldings  Whakanoa process  NZ embassies all around the world  Sky Tower in Auckland  Te Tumu  Increased awareness – Te Māori Exhibition - New York 1984 th Lecture 4 – 24 July 2012 Ngā tikanga o te marae Objectives 1. Understand the marae structure and related symbolism 2. Prepare you for what you can expect when arriving on the marae 3. Understanding the role of tapu, noa and mana on the marae Marae Complex The marae does not only consist of the main building, rather it encompasses the whole complex. Although each marae and each tribe is different most will have 1. Whare tipuna – ancestral house/house of ancestors (also known as the whare nui) 2. Whare kai – food house/where food is prepared 3. Whare mate – House of death, this is where the corpse is put in a funeral 4. Whare paku – toilet, showers, bathroom 5. Marae atea – courtyard or area outside the whare tipuna 6. Urupā – cemetery Marae  Every Māori person can whakapapa back to one or more marae  Marae are built on kinship land, usually that of the hapū (subtribe)  Provides tūrangawaewae (place for your feet) this means it is a place where you can go and know you belong, it is your genealogical origin - There is a concern that people are not practicing on the marae and the Māori culture is dying, some people do not know where they came from  Bastion of Māori culture - Place where Māori practices are maintained - Māori language is paramount - A physical connection of whakapapa  While the marae is not as tapu as an urupā, the marae complex maintains a higher degree of tapu than the surrounding land  The longer the marae is in place, the stronger the tapu  However, the marae complex is split into tapu and noa areas  Whare tipuna – tapu  Whare kai – noa  Whare mate – tapu  Whare paku – noa  Marae atea – this depends on the tribe can be either tapu or noa  Urupā – tapu Whare tipuna/Whare nui Outside (readings)  Tekoteko  Koruru  Maihi  Amo  Raparapa Inside (readings)  Tāhuhu  Heke  Poupou  Pou tuaronga  Pou tokomanawa (referred to as the heart of your home)  Pou tāhū ** The pou are also referred to as the connection between Papa and Rangi Levels of whakapapa There are three levels – 1. The physical manifestation of an ancestor (ancient ancestor i.e. Paikea) 2. The poupou (inside and represent the more recent ancestors i.e. grandfathers) 3. The photos hanging on the walls (of recent ancestors who have passed away) Tapu/Noa Right Side = Noa Left Side = Tapu Life Death Locals Visitors This is represented like this because we are talking about the left side of the ancestor not your left side. The left hand side is also known as Te taha whanui because it is the biggest side, perhaps this is why they give it to visitors because it is more room (i.e. linked back to manaaki) Powhiri process  Involves 2 groups (1) Tangata whenua (people of the land) (2) Manuhiri (visitors)  Waewae tapu (visitors have not been here before i.e. their feet have not touched the marae before) therefore must do a powhiri to welcome them in so that this does not have to happen every time  The powhiri is ultimately a whakanoa process  There are different kawa (protocol)  The kawa lies with the tangata whenua - Mana whenua The Process 1. Waerea  Performed by the manuhiri as they wait for the powhiri to begin  Traditionally used to ward off any bad spirits  To protect the group  Not often used contemporarily; merely to ensure that the ritual goes correctly 2. Whakaeke  Slow movement of the manuhiri on the marae atea  A haka powhiri can be performed at this time by the tangata whenua  Generally the women go infront and then the men will follow and then create a protective guard around the women 3. Wero  Performed by a young warrior from the tangata whenua  Determined the intentions of the visiting party  A taki (dart) is laid on the group; this can be a fern/feather etc.  If picked up – shows the group comes in peace (ALWAYS PICK IT UP – man will do this)  Now reserved for very important guests  Because of the dying culture, if a marae can perform this it enhances the mana of the marae 4. Karanga  Performed by women from both sides (call) and this begins the process  Expression of mana wahine - “The power of women” - The ability of women to bring people into life  Gathers information about the groups, acknowledges death and welcomes the group 5. Tangi  The cry or wail acknowledging the dead, reflects on the ancestors 6. Whaikorero  Performed by men from both sides - They will sit on the pae pae (bench seat) - Only men; but now because of the scarcity of the Māori language, women who speak te reo may be elevated and able to sit there - Originally it was to show that the men protected the women  Usually with high mana  Most iwi women are not permitted to speak  Kawa – two types (1) Tauutuutu: reciprocity of action (2) Paeke: all the tangata whenua will speak then it is passed to the visitors to speak  A song of support is sung following each whaikorero 7. Hongi/Hariru  Sometimes a gift of a koha is given then they perform the hongi and hariru  Hongi: touching of noses and sharing of breath; it represents bringing people together and acknowledges the creation of the first woman (Maui breathing life into her)  Hariru: literally the Māori translation of “how do you do” 8. Hākari  The final and most important part of the process  Eating the food  Lifts the tapu of the process  Food as an agent of noa Kāi Tahu kawa (South Island)  Paeke – whaikorero kawa  Kaikaranga – the first to hongi and hariru  Karitane - Remove your shoes  Otākou and Moeraki - Don’t remove your shows unless the beds are laid out (this is because it is very cold = practical) th Lecture 5 – 26 July 2012 Assignment:  Blackboard  Assignment writing guidelines  How to evaluate websites – whether it is a good website  Submit it online  No need for a cover sheet Ngā Tikanga O Te Marae Part Two Tangihanga – The Funeral Process Tradition Maui and Mortality Maui sought to make human kind immortal, he believed he could do this by reversing the birth process, Hine-nui-te-pō disagreed and believed that things need to come and things need to go “Remain, O Tāne, to bring forth progeny to the world of life; I go below to draw them down to world of darkness” Māui wanted eternal life for humankind Turning himself into a lizard, he attempted to enter Hine-nui-te-pō His fantail friends laughed at the sight Hine-nui-te-pō woke up and crushed Māui between her thighs” Therefore one of the reasons we continue to die is the end of Maui, and from this narrative we take symbols of death: 1. Lizard: viewed as a tohu of death 2. Fantails: if a fantail enters your home it is the spirit of the anscestor that someone has passed on Before the Tangihanga Maori don’t like to talk about death or dying, some of this is because of the idea of karanga mate. This is why many people do not have wills because they believe that they are tempting fate and calling death upon themselves Ōhākī  Dying wishes – similar to a will but only said on your death bed  Generally who you are passing your mana to, who you would like the next leader to be (generally oldest child)  Also can involve advice you have for kin, instructions and aspirations for the future i.e. the Kaumatua who built the whare nui on Victoria’s campus and he made an ōhākī about his aspirations of Maori studies at Victoria and helping the Maori students at Victoria - This was turned into a song (they can be very enduring to remind us of what goes on) Whare tūroro  Place where we generally house the sick and dying  Tūroro means patient  Traditionally this was burnt down after they died to remove the tapu, but we can no longer do this (because the places are hospitals) so water and prayer is used instead to lift away the tapu Tangihanga Once someone has passed away we still believe that their spirit is still there, their body is a corpse but the wairua is hanging around. Therefore the body will be prepared and cleaned Tūpāpaku  Traditionally displayed in a seated (crouched) position  Speeches directed to the corpse  Whare mate house the mourners and the Tūpāpaku  Some iwi it is on the porch of the whare nui  Kawa of marae determines the position of the coffin - Tapu side of the whare tupuna - Northland placed in the middle at the back Whānau pani Kiri mate, kura tūohu - Immediate family of the person who passed away - Considered as in much of a state of tapu as the person who has passed away - Considered as living in the world of the dead because of the connection to that person, their wairua Restrictions about what they can and cannot do  Stay next to the body (pouaru) - Widows  Fast for the whole mourning period - Remain in that state of tapu while you are mourning - Today it has relaxed for some families, some will only eat after dark  Do not speak, a representative from the extended whānau or hāpu speak on their behalf - Can be doing 6-8 powhiri a day Tangihanga Process  Tangi may last for 4-7 days depending on the mana of the deceased. The higher the mana the longer the tangihana - Accomodates and allows for the numerous people to acknowledge of that person  The first day of a tangi is usually reserved for family and locals  Tangi take precedence over all other events In Northern Areas - Only conducted during the day - The visitors enter the whare tipuna - A karanga is performed, tangi is strong - An Elder will speak, the rest of the group will stand weeping - After the speaking is finished the group (everyone) will move directly to the coffin, hongi the mourners and the tūpāpaku (coffin) - But in some tribes that is not common for everyone to be able to approach/sit with the body Other Areas - Only immediate family will approach the body - Often will be invited to stay and sit with the whānau pani (i.e. when the Maori Queen died, Helen Clark was asked to sit with the whanu pani to recognize the relationship that the Queen had with the government.)  The Second day and third day is usually for people visiting from out of town – no tthat they will be refused should they arrive early.  Should arrive in groups, but if you are alone wait for another big group because of the emotions associated with the powhiri  The last night of the tangihanga is a celebration of life - Whānau pani are able to speak - Share stories and sing songs - Informal celebration of that person, generally just family The Nehu (the burial)  The coffin is closed in the morning  A service is usually held on the marae  The tūpāpaku is then taken to the urupā  Namesakes and young children will carry flowers and wreaths  Urupā are often close to or attached to marae [Time: wait for things to happen not going by time.] Maori did not bury a lot of people, they hid them because of the practice of trying to consume someone’s mana, trying to hide them so that someone would not try and consume them and their mana. After the tangihanga Rituals – 1. Takahi whare (trample the house) - Whakanoa – to remove the tapu - Even if they did not die there 2. Everybody returns to the marae for the hakiri - Important part of the process, it is about bringing the whānau pani back from the restrictive tapu, back into the world of the living - Being able to interact with people again - Really important part A Year On: Traditionally:  Perform a hahunga, exhuming the bones. They would be cleaned and presented and have another ritual of tangihanga that this is the last time and then returned to the ground forever. Contemporary:  Now they have a hura kōhatu is an unveiling of the headstone (but these are done all at once for efficient reasons).  Kawe Mate: Carrying the death with you; sometimes they will carry that death to different places who had a relationship to that person who passed away, there is a short memorial service. Contemporary Issues NZ has began to respect and understand the tikanga around death and dying from a Maori perspective.  Adoption by NZ society to having bodies lie in rest at home - In general, instead of having them in funeral homes (not as common as it used to be)  “Body Snatching” - Media have blown this up - Broken families in mixed relationships - Where the maori family want to go through the formal rituals of the tangihana and take the body home to the marae, the family, and urupā - Billy T James: was taken and buried without the permission of his wife - Diaspora Maori must also respect the Pakeha, and they should tell them what they want before they die and to respect the tikanga of Pakeha – Walker st Lecture 6 – 31 July 2012 Kinship Structures The way Māori society is formed, social groups and how the world is set up Four major social groups 1. Waka – migratory canoe - Tradition: made our way to NZ, every Maori can link themselves to one of those people who landed on NZ - From these original migrants they established themselves and established tribes 2. Tribes (Iwi) 3. Sub-tribes (hapu) 4. Whānau These are the largest to the smallest. This is about the sizing of the groups. *** Do a table of all these social groups Waka  Migratory Canoe  Māori can trace their ancestry to crew members  There was a theory of our migration through the pacific – 7 canoes and they all migrated = one mass migration - But there were more canoes than 7 and more waves of migration  Landfall sites formed the original homelands of the descendants - Where they landed and set themselves up - Tinana was homesick and left his daughter at Tauroa point and then sent it back as Te Māmaru - There are stories of migratory canoes having to go further down the coast  Has a sentimental rather than functional meaning - Romantic attachment to the arrival of the canoes - No role to play in society Iwi - Traditional 1. Everyone established themselves as a tribe and as the tribes were 2. Everyone established themselves as families These are the two theories of how they established themselves.  Tribe  Literal meaning of iwi is “bones of ones kin”  Conceptual category seeking to link people to a common ancestor  “Loose confederation of smaller constituent groups”  Ultimately the iwi did not have a large role to play in society (in terms of day-to-day living); only came together in large scale warfare as a tribe  Ten largest iwi and they still remain in this regard Hapu - Traditional  Hapu = to be pregnant,  Subtribe/clan  Principle political and social entity  Autonomous  Managed their own resources - i.e. local government (the DC’s)  Come together for large building projects or warfare, defending land and resrouces  Ahi-kā (warm fires) or Ahi-mātao (cold fires) – maintaining the idea of this  After 3 generations if you do not participate in the community then your fires have gone cold. You have given up your rights and responsibilities with your family. - If people are not there, are we losign rights and access to those places? Ten Largest Iwi 2006 Census  Ngāpuhi 122,211  Ngāti Porou 71,910  Ngāti Kahungunu 59,946  Ngāi Tahu/ Kāi Tahu 49,185  Te Arawa 42,159  Ngāti Tūwharetoa 34,674  Ngāti Maniapoto 33,627  Waikato 33,429  Tūhoe 32,670  Ngāti Awa 15,258 Whānau – Traditional  Family  Be born  Most intimate kinship group  Variations of family size  Idea: 3 generations lived together as a productive unit  Elders educated the children - “you sit at the knees of your ancestors” - and they also were the leadership  Parents went out to work Therefore many whānau as part of hapu which made up an iwi Iwi – Contemporary  Become principle, political and social entity  Government will only deal with iwi  Corporate entities When the government initiated this process they said they are only going to deal with iwi – this has meant that all the mana that the subtribes had in terms of their rights has now been passed to the tribe. For the tribe to be able to engage with the government they have to be set up as a corporation, which has to be approved and recognised by the government. For example – Ngāi Tahu has extensive property investments and social development arm (i.e. education strategies). The role iwi now play is huge thus hapu have gone into the background. Hapu – Contemporary  Migrations, urbanization, movements towards Christian groups, pan tribal groups  Broke ties to hapū  Smaller hapū disappeared  Hapū are still asserting their rights within their iwi structure  Lost a lot of their power  Now they are trying to assert their rights within ther iwi structures for resources.  Ngai tahu – owns the greenstone. Therefore for the hapu that were guardians of this for centuries, all that mana whenua to take care of those resources were gone - Some have been trying to work with NT to try and work for value - Set up an authentication process; code will tell you which tribe did this, what family harvested it etc.  Hapū are asserting their rights within their iwi structure for resources  Some sub-tribes have tried to be classified as a tribe Whānau - Contemporary  Concept of whakapapa whānau has changed because we no longer have lots of children, more like the traditional family - but this concept has grown itself - Have Kaupapa whānau: those that are not biologically related but they are centred around a common goal or common objective  Nuclear family  Sports teams, work groups  Using the family as a motivator for social change  Central concept in maori society Social Class 1. Ragatira – usually from senior (tuakana) lines of descent (high levels of tapu and mana) - Gained leadership from this class 2. Tūtūa/Ware – Commoners with weak or junior (teina) lines (tapu and mana) 3. Pononga – servants (noa) 4. Taurekareka – slaves, prisoners of war (noa – even as individuals they were noa and no tapu and no mana) BUT still had overarching principle of manaaki There was not a lot of social mobility (moving between classes) because your whakapapa cannot change, however you could build up other aspect of mana through deeds and achievements, but this was rare. Concepts to underpin society 1. Whakapapa 2. Manaaki - Underpins it all - Kinship solidarity through the mutual support of relatives - “the real sign of a person’s mana and tapu is not their power to destroy people, but that person’s power to manaaki, to protect and look after people” - Ma te manaaki te tangata e tu ai te mana By loving an honoring people, a communal life is created and a community in strength This was an ideal, therefore it was not always in the forefront of everyones minds. Pan Tribal Groups  Groups formed beyond whakapapa  Brought together for a common goal  Not necessarily bound by whakapapa  Responses to colonization  Economic and social development  It was about creating your own crowd of people so that you could have a tribal group. Lecture 7 – 2 August 2012 Leadership Leadership structures What is leadership? Alan Keith of Genentech  “The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task” - Leader has followers, people who empower them to be a leader - Idea of mana tangata - They look at your accomplishments, achievements etc. and they empower you  “Leadership is ultimately about creating a way for people to contribute to making something extraordinary happen”  Based on the concept of mana Inherited - From their families Achieved - Mana whenua – claims to land and resources and rights and responsibilities to that case - Mana tangata – contribute to your community and you gain skills  It is not always hereditary: - It was not always about the eldest or who possessed the tangata. This was because sometimes they were a loser and the people did not want them as a leader. - The people will then look to the second child, the child that is displaying more of the achieved mana that they are looking for. They were chosen by the incumbent or the people – through the ohaki they would choose the leader of the group OR the people would say this.  It can also be through conquest (i.e. needed more land and resources) and it could be acquired by strategic marriage. The practice of arranged marriages was quite common in the Māori world Chiefs –  Drawn from the upper-classes of Māori society (rangatira) this is because you had access to the knowledge to be a leader i.e. you had the qualities required for leadership.  Tuakana lines of descent  Still had to prove themselves  Must show the appropriate qualities of the roles of a leader Leadership structure  Iwi – Ariki  Hapu – Rangatira - Note Rangatira is the name of the highest class AND the name of the chief of the sub level  Whānau – Kaumatua - Generally at this level the nana and koru are shared leaders of the family Tohunga  Ritual leader - Tohunga ahurewa: had all the knowledge, all the traditions were held and maintained at this level – good guys - Tohunga taura/whaiwhaia: Bad guys; these are the ones that got kicked out of school, they developed their knowledge in the dark arts Idea: these tohunga were identified at a young age, elders would watch the children and where children displayed a passion for a particular area of knowledge and the elders would teach them in the arts of that.  Trained in traditional Māori schools of learning  Skilled in specific areas of Māori knowledge  Would act as an advisor to the ariki Traditional qualities Leader did have to have some knowledge in that area  Mahi Kai – Production and supply of food - Economics - When is the best time to harvest, how to harvest, plan for famine - Most important thing - Who to trade with  Knowledge of war – training, planning, evaluating, courage - Politics  Pacific arts – manaaki, hosting of guests, oratory, traditional knowledge, mediation, - Intelligence - But intelligence for the traditional context - Manaaki is intelligence based - Did not have a written language – charisma etc.  Ariki - Perform religious activities Exhumation of bones, whakanoa - Management of rangatira, acting as mediator, supervisor - With the rangatira – decide on matters of foreign policy It was a matter of saying that you needed something from them How to communicate, how to get what you want How to create a policy around who you negotiate with - Orator – “the master of arts and letters” Could empower and communicate people really well What about women? Generally it was men that had these roles, the women were in the background  Women of chiefly descent retained status - Ariki tapairu, kahurangi, tuhi mareikura - Recognition of mana and tapu would still be there and be respected  Active leadership was passed to the males, often their husbands - This is where arranged marriages came into play  Whānau level: kaumatua leadership shared between the male and female  Exceptions – - Mihi Kotukutuku of Te Whānau-a-Apanui: identified at a young as the leader of the tribe, many people were not happy with this. She went to Te Arawa which has a very different approach to women. She was very fierce as a female leader - Ngāti Porou: Taumau Marriage  Arranged marriage  Strategic alliance – joining chiefly lines together, access to sharing good resources and food, end conflict  Common  Was not necessarily that they did not want to marry each other – had to be agreed by all parties. Even though it was arranged it did not have to go ahead if parties did not agree with it  Eruera & Amiria Stirling – one of the last taumau marriages in NZ in 1918; arranged that they were to marry but they were not happy about but the marriage was a successful marriage Period of Change  Arrival of Europeans – different world view and framework - Changed the context and the situation, Maori had to adapt to fit within it  Effects of colonization  Inherited and achieved mana still relevant, however, you could have one without the other or both - Inherited mana increased in relevance more  Adoption of western knowledge became important  Decline in Māori population - Need for a leadership - Lost many men through world-war 1 and 2, and with them went a lot of knowledge and a lot of leaders  Individual needs over collective - A lot of people no longer views those collective qualities as important or relevant any more  Legislation effected traditional roles - Tohunga Suppression Act 1907 This was supported by Maori because what was happening is that Maori were dying rapidly from influenza, tohunga were trying to maintain their role in society by being healers but they were not using western medicines, and it was not enough. Believed that the European atua were the reason not they were not getting sick. Therefore they campaigned to stop tohunga using traditional knowledge, but this influenced all tohunga and all arts and knowledge was stopped. Therefore there is a massive decline in tohunga and the knowledge died with them Through this period of change there was new forms and new types of leadership. Sir … first MP and first lawyer – he came forward as the new face of leadership for Māori, attended Te Aute. Through this school came a lot of these men, he embodies this song (quote). This quote and him as a person embodied the new type of leadership – i.e. keep your traditional knowledge Contemporary leadership qualities  Qualities - Politics Strategise, negotiations - Economics Managing Assets as tribal leaders, it is now money focused rather than food. - Intelligence Both Western and Māori Knowledge (more explicit) Knowledge of the new world, and increasingly important for our leaders to have knowledge of Asian countries Leadership profiles Professor Sir Mason Durie  Rangitane & Ngāti Kauwhata  DVC & AVC Massey University (retired)  Contribution to Māori health programs  Leader in indigenous development & health - If you are sick in one part of your health then your house falls down - Haoura – all four sides of the house; if one Hon Dr Pita Sharples  Ngāti Kahungunu  Co-leader of the Maori Party  Educationalist  Exponent of Maori Performing Arts  CBE Maori education  Used the idea of maori knowledge and language and combined with an education system structured in a western way to have better outcomes for maori children Annette Sykes  Lawyer  Social Justice  Treaty settlements and land rights  Fought for the people affected by the tuhoe raid  Advocate of Maori autonomy and GE and Nuclear free  Beyond a maori focus, she has other passions as well. Lecture 8 – 7 August 2012 ONLINE TEST  Available on blackboard  Available from 8am – 6pm  1 hour to complete the test  40 questions – combination of multiple choice, ordering, matching, multiple answer – range of a type of question you need to complete (each answer is quarter)  Everything including the leadership lecture last Thursday  Can only complete once  Go through and answer everything straight away – eliminate the questions that you know the answers to, use the left over time to find the answers you are not sure of  All 40 all together Māori Performing Arts Karyn Paringatai – Lecturer in Te Tumu (usually takes this lecture but was away)  Completing her PHD: Maori migrants from the North Island and landed in Invercargill  Teaches performing arts in Otago Maori Performing Arts  Not a ‘performance’ - It was not about performing in a theatre but it is about rituals - Tikanga based on those concepts - Expression of those ritual practices  Entirely oral culture  Rock paintings (common in the South Island)  Whakairo (carving)  Raranga (weaving) Acts of Māori Performing Arts –  Karanga - Element of performing arts - Call of welcome  Waikorero - Formal speech making But they did have other performing arts –  Waiata tangi - Laments - Developed and written to remember acts of the death  Poi - Originally used as games, and now built more into performing arts today  Waiata-a-ringa - Action songs - Recent phenomenon – only after contact - Developed by the man on the $50 note - Recognised as a way of revitalizing language and performing arts - Way to provide a link back into Maori culture Origins of Māori Performing Arts Whakapapa of Māori performing arts  Hine-takurua = Tama-nui-te-ra= Hine raumati (have a son who is called Tane-rore)  Te haka a Tāne-rore (the dance of Tāne-rore) - Theory – on hot days, when you can see the heat shimmering it is Tane-rore  Tāne-rore developed this performance of ritual Haka What is a haka?  It has commonly become known as a war dance but in fact represents only dance Where have you seen the haka been performed?  All blacks and all the other sports teams  Powhiri  Competitions – Kapahaka  This has become the representation of haka to the world, to NZ and to Māori this personification of an aspect of our culture has presented it as a war dance to the rest of the world. The general belief: (1) War dance (2) Māori are warriors Consequences of building a stereotype (3) Violent, aggressive and intimidating It always gets debated all the time – because of the commodification and its constant use, generally every Olympics they argue about it. There is often a negative feeling being attached to it which is then transferred to all Maori rituals and all Maori acts. Now the overuse and overexpression of a ritual attaches negative values quite broadly, the misrepresentation of it. We constantly have this commercialization of something that at its very heart is so much more valuable than something that gets whipped out on a sports paddock What does haka really mean? Haka is the generic term for all types of dance i.e. haka pōhiri (welcoming dance), haka-poi (poi dance) – yet it has been labeled a war dance which is just one type of haka. The war dance itself does not necessarily exist, there are types of rituals that were to be performed for war, and rituals of dance before war. Further a type of haka was used to warn people that someone was going to come to the village. Ka mate, ka mate  This was a haka written by a chief – Te Rauparaha - Ngāti Toa - 1820’s  The all blacks only perform half of the haka (the second half)  We are now talking about haka being labeled a war dance, and in particular this one haka has specific negative associations related to it  Transplanted on top of this is a loss of mana to have it wheeled off to make money off, and all that mana of Ngati toa has been trampled on (takahi mana) the idea that there has been very little reciprocity for ngati toa in the way that this haka has been used Versions of the development of the Haka Te Rauparaha Hid in a kumara pit where food was stored, under the legs of his daughter  The enemy did not look for him there because he was a chief of high mana, no chief would sit in a food pit, or behind the legs of a woman that can crush you  Therefore Te Rauparaha diminished his own tapu and manu to save his life – this is the experience which stemmed ka mate ka mate  Further the performance of this haka in the South Island is not welcomed. This is because Te Rauparaha was responsible for pillaging and destroying hapu’s and thus Ngāi Tapu does not welcome the ka mate ka mate haka.  It has futher been commercialized – they are making money out of it Haka  Peruperu - War haka - Battlefield - Weapons - High jump kick (had to be removed from ka mate performed by the All Blacks because it is not a war haka)  Tūtū ngārāhu - Village - Side to side jump - Weapons  Whakatū waewae - Arm movements, no jumping  Kaka taparahi (most common) - Ceremonial/ritual - No weapons - Set actions - Social and political messages - Most common - This is essentially what ka mate ka mate is now  Ngeri - Short haka - No set actions - First part of ka mate, ka mate (originally but today it is more Kaka Taparahi) Women in haka There is a common belief that women cannot do haka, but they can and do all the time  Vocal support  Manu ngangahu - Pūkana - Widening of the eyes and the dilating of the eyes and it was an expression of what the women have to perform  Forbidden to women? - Main issue is the women sticking their tongues out (whētero – represents the penis) because women do not have this they do not perform this - It is not appropriate for women to do this Politics in Māori Performing Arts Often Māori use performing arts as a way of being political, and addressing social injustices and a representation of our activism  Māori politics = mana - Control, distribution, acquisition, maintenance  Compositions - Opinions commentary on political situations - Tribal boundaries, resources, marriages, whakapapa, war, revenge  Colonisation  Urbanisation Takaparawha/Bastion Point  Chief sold the Auckland CBD to Hobson saying that they wanted to keep BP for them  Over a period of 100 years it was slowly taken away through illegal purchasing, Public Works Act, by forcing people off, eventually they were left with nothing  Ngati whatua – oraku domain in Auckland was last - Government refused to give them electricity and sewage - Built a big drain pipe - Government pulled everyone out of their homes and put them into state homes - Joe Hook – looked down upon that place and looked down as they put on things such as circuses and had elephants (i.e. urupa) on their land - JH = occupation of Bastion Point – occupied it for 507 days This was a huge political moment for Maori and non-Maori. On day 507, they had hundreds of police, army, armed defenders squad and everything to remove these people from bastion point Waitangi tribunal found in favour of the Maori and the land was eventually returned. But this was still a turning point in Maori history and the recognition that land overturning was still happening. This was represented in 2002 at the Aotearoa Traditional Māori Performing Arts Festival in Te Kotahitanga, Christchurch  Nōku tēnei whenua, ahakoa te aha! (This land is mine, no matter what!) th Lecture 9 – 9 August 2012 Canoe Migrations Documentary Worksheet 1. What is the significance of the canoe migrations to a Māori identity  It is similar to the DNA tests in England – every person wants to know where they came from  To find out where they came from  Meet the pacific people that they are related to  Place that gave them their parents – where they are from = base  Not only your history but all relatives that share DNA  Maui meant a lot to Maori rather than the English interpretation of a clan father  Link to the sea – the sea will take them home  80% of the cookies have the same clan father as them – established where the waka came from  Obvious that the Maori came from the Cook Islands – shows that this is where they came from  Show’s who you are linked to and so you can find a place where you belong and feel comfortable  Makes you feel good and that you are part of a bigger thing  Know the truth  Establishes that Pacific places were established early, even as early as rome 2. List the features which demonstrated the migration through the pacific  The language between the cook islands and the maori is different – showing the adaptation Cook Islands  Cook islanders are the older brother of the NZ Maori  Cook islanders and Maori are very similar – i.e. hospitality, look, language  Origin stories are similar Samoan  Many samoans have the same clan father  Departing rock – has the place names on it (name of the canoes) Vanuatu  Dead pottery has been found between Vanuatu and Samoa – showing that they travelled to Samoa – similar carvings on the pottery and these patterns are the patterns that are replicated in tapa and throughout the culture  Vanuatu Burial sites – ancestors people are being placed in the cavaties – but up to a year later they are removing the skulls and shifting them to ceremonial houses (this is a similar process as Maori used to)  They all have similar ideas of tapu  Culture is the same but physical looks are different Taiwan  Similar Maori name  Tattoos similar to Moko’s  Indigenous people from Taiwan look like Maori, seeing aspects of their cultures are similar to Maori and Pacific islanders  The language is the same – i.e. father and mother  Felt like NZ, indigenous people colonized by the chinese - Coastal villages - Tribes as familiar as the other pacific tribes  Dance similar to a haka  Coastal tribes have canoes, house – similar to Maori and samoan  Men cook as in Samoa  Most of the indigenous tribes live across the coast  Takitino is the name of one of the canoes – where are you from  Language, culture, people (people is an important part in the pacific)  You could see that it was colonized by the same people 3. Describe one in detail Once of the most striking features was that the Taiwanese looked like the Maori – Lecture 10 – 14 August 2012 Geoff Williams - Maori Attitudes to land “We did not inherit the land: we have it on loan from our grandchildren” Kai Tahu Kaumatua 1997 Read the Chapter – this will amplify what he has to say. View of Land FOCUS: explain the Maori philosophic base underpinning their attitude to land and contrast that to the European View (judeo-christian view) which follows the instruction in the bible which say s we should go out an subdue the land and dominate it for our own purposes. This has resulted in most land in the European world being treated as a commodity The Maori view however, is not one of ownership and domination of the land but one of kaitiakitanga.  Tiaki – to take care of  Kai – one who does that action You can be kaitiaki over almost everything  Tanga – makes it into a concept Therefore this is the concept of caregiving – and this is very different to the Christian view North American Attitude to Land – Winona La Duke (Anishinaabeg, Minnesota)  Virtually the same as Maori  “The land to which people belong”  The land does not belong to the people but the people belong to the land Polynesian Routes of the Maori Attitude towards Land  Island which has a whakapapa – the descendants of Mea (thingy)  The people are the descendants of this person, Mea was the person who lived on the island and who made all the decisions about what would happen there  Mea was the high chief  Mea had two children  Land split up for the two offspring of Mea  And then the land is divided between the grandchildren and the great grandchildren Important Aspects –  The boundaries go out to sea – this is because the rights to sea are exactly the same as the rights to land  Furthermore, the land boundaries do not follow the rivers and they also go out to sea  But typically in the Polynesian set up the boundaries would follow the ridgetops rather than the rivers = important difference to the European system In USA – there is no state that covers the River = the river is the boundary. Another difficulty is that we see the world in a different way. The difference with Maori is that water was treated the same as the land and boundaries went out to see, but the Europeans said that you cannot own water. However, recently they are beginning to believe you can own water What Polynesians were trying to do, is that they were trying to create ownership blocks that had a little bit of everything to cut down on the fighting. Each block can be cut down as many times preserving this philosophy. They really cared about having an equal share of the land. Geographers who have studied land holdings throughout the world have found that this is the most popular type of land holding amongst traditional people. Terms of this system (by geographers):  Ecotones - Eco (i.e. ecology) referring to a range of habitats - Unsure where the tones came from  Econtonal – this is an ecotonal system of land holding In terms of migration, Maori is what the Polynesian people became when they had been here for a while. Because they were isolated they developed a slightly different language, society and culture from the Polynesians to distinguish them as a separate ethnicity (culture). It was usually the younger relations (teina). That is why pacific islanders are addressed as anakera because they are the older relations that stayed and looked after the culture. Main differences between NZ and Pacific: 1. Size - It is immensely bigger than any island they would have come across before - Because they were leaving a place where there was not enough land for everyone, and people were fighting - Wondered if anyone lived there 2. The trees are larger and taller 3. It is not as warm as the pacific 4. Finding food is different - All the settlements were coastal and their main food source was seafood It may have taken 300-400 years to go into the centre of NZ. Given the ecotonal land holding system – how can they divide the country up?  When you get inland this philosophy does not work well, it needs to be adapted and so slowly the philosophies that they brought here with them would have broken down.  Polynesians were big on imagery – i.e. how Maui caught the fish  They brought as much philosophy wisdom with them as they could and now we will look at the adaptation of philosophy David Clarke (1968) “A culture is an adaptation to a specific environment and a change in environment will usually be accompanied by cultural adjustment” Therefore culture depends on the environment and if you change the environment then there will have to be some cultural adjustments. This is shown through the change of the boundaries, the stone tools, the food. Also if a change in environment is accompanied by a change in cultural adjustment then a radical change in environment may force a dramatic change in culture. And that is why Ngai Tahu are very different to most of the North Island Tribes culturally, linguistically, in terms of what they eat, and lifestyle because you would not grow Kumera in half of the South Island, but they realised they needed carbs and they planted cabbage trees – giant lilies that have a great root which is full of sugar and this is where the majority or the carbs came from in the lower south. This is the most significant cultural adjustment that occurred in NZ. th Lecture 11 – 16 August 2012 Early Industry and Enterprise  Notes: Multiple choice questions back on blackboard – do these for the exam and ask how else she could ask it to prepare more for the exam  Essays: as of next week the grades will be uploaded by Friday next week. Then times will be posted on blackboard for whether you need to see her. BUT she can put the mark down  Next week workshops focus on the second essays Worksheet: 1. Describe one event which reflects the ‘cultural misunderstanding’ that occurred between Māori and Pākehā during the early contact period. - Cultural understandings – did not respect Maori custom 2. Describe the “Golden Age” of the Māori economy. - Maori as entrepreneurs 3. Give a detailed example of a positive aspect of Māori and Pākehā relations during the early contact period - Literacy 4. Give a detailed example of a negative aspect of Māori and Pākehā relations during the early contact period. - Diseasees First Contact Pākehā – in the beginning was really only for the British that came to NZ. Early explorers Abel Tasman (1642) Maori did not have ships therefore they thought that this was an entire planet coming into their harbor and it was filled with white spiritual beings to Māori. Maori sent out a waka performing a wero on water to ascertain who they were. This encounter did not do well, Abel Tasman did not set foot on NZ. Captain James Cook (1769) He came better prepared and had a Tahitian on board, the language was very similar therefore they were able to communicate. Note that the story of Abel Tasman had been passed down to generation to generation but there was a relationship that was able to be built Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne (1772) Breached tapu and were killed Four Waves of Settlement Sealers and Whalers  Captain Cooks reports of Maori at the time was that they were strongly, healthy, friendly and sending people this way  The first settlers were sealers and whalers, they came from all over the world and it was all based on Cooks reports  Intermarriage between sealers and whalers and maori were very high and very common  It was important that S&W would marry into Maori families, because they were able to get resources and provide employment But – cultural misunderstandings The Boyd Massacre (1809)  This was about the issue of mana  Chief son was treated poorly (asked to be a cabin hand)  Whipped and treated poorly for not performing these duties  Father killed everyone Therefore this was sporatic contact – most occurred in the South Island, and many Ngai Tapu names come from the Sealers and Whalers Missionaries  First mission was established in 1814 by the Anglican Church - Rangihoua  Rev. Samuel Marsden & the CMS  The missionaries get a bad wrap because they were changing the belief system - One of the steps of colonization is to break down the cultural and value system - Therefore missionaries were a tool of colonization  But the missionaries learnt our language and turned oral language into written  Absolutely contributed to Te Reo Maori – but Maori were not interested in Christianity, it was merely viewed as another iwi/tikanga  But it was not until they started suffering that they showed that they might want to convert to their religion  Christianity developed in the far north The Missionaries established themselves in villages, and the perception was where there were missionaries it was safe Traders  Associated themselves with a mission station  Establish protection of the tribe  Strategic marriage – saw the advantages of having a Pakeha or having a non-maori trader in your village because you got different resources.  Therefore intermarriage was necessary  Flax traders – Barnet Burns 1831  It was common for traders to come over, marry and create trade relationships and then they would go back to their other wives Many of these were ex-convicts, but we had out missionarious, our resources thus it was time to bring the people Settlers 1830 – 1838  Settler population from 150-200  Mostly British or British/Australian  Usually from the junior lines from their family  Escaping strict class systems  Escaping gaols NZ used to provide assisted passage to start to settle the country, and it was advertised for many people. ISSUE – MAORI DID NOT HAVE ANY LAWS OR ANY SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT other than a Maori system of law which did not cater for new people with new values. People were often escaping and trying to get away Enterprise and Trade Enterprise  Technological advancement - Metal goods  Employment - Whaling Boats  Maori were the majority therefore they had more of a position of power – Maori saw these opportunities and took them on  Things were much easier and faster with resources coming in  Instead of money, they had a system of gift exchanges - Once you give a gift, they are obliged to give you a gift - Therefore someone was always indebted to someone else - This continued the relationship with another - The value had to be of equivalent or more value  Crown brought in a new system of money – employment was different because Maori were paid for the work they were doing  This created new opportunities for Maori and began the trade economy  Fostering of entrepreneurship and increased trade - Potatoes Higher yield & Frost tolerant 1803 – able to purchase by the ton established by Maori (tribes provided the potatoes). Therefore it was a major export for Maori Golden Age This is when Maori were thriving – the entrepreneurs of Maori Hone Tūhawaika – “Bloody Jack”  1835 – seal boat  1837 – selling potatoes by the tonne  1838 – 40 whale boats at Ruapuke  1839 – ten-ton cutter  1844- Adapted a seal boat into a schooner for transport – started a shipping and transport company  Therefore he was an entrepreneur and he took advantage of the resources he already had and used them to get new resources Rawiri Taiwhanga  Fascinated with agricultural practices  1826 – Running a market garden out of mission station  Wife – Mata Rawa was running a laundry business  1834 – Running a large dairy farm in Kaikohe  1835 – first recorded sales of butter in NZ = butter was a treat because you could not bring that over from Britain  NZ’s first commercial dairy farmer His cousin was Hone Heke; he did not support his cousin in the Maori land wars and lost everything Export Industries Maori and Europeans loved exporting and NZ was abundant in a whole bunch of resources 1. Flax - Used for making ropes - Peaked in 1831 - 1182 tons exported to Sydney - Very strong and these were exported to Australia - Generally they were getting rope from Russia who was going to war thus we benefitted by that. This is where you see NZ being affected by other aspects of the world. We are now integrated in the world and different countries are affecting us. Unfortunately, the war ended and this industry died out quickly 2. Timber 1833 - Biggest export - Mostly to Australia - Quickly - Hokianga Hone Heke’s tribe was large on exporting timber, and it was just after the TOW and the new Govt. established taxes on exports and imports and this crippled his industry, then he was banned from trading – this led to the cutting down flags. Note: did not need a lot of capital investment UNTIL flourmills and shipping. We did not have wheat or grains in NZ, once we saw how important it was as an industry. Then we began to commission sale boats. These were ok until steamboats took over, and Maori was left with ships that had indebted them and they were not longer efficient and no longer to be used. This started to see the slow down in the Maori economy, end of the Maori Goldern Era. Other Positives 1. Travel - Audience with European royalty Used to got the UK and Chiefs would meet with royalty and would learn new skills Strategic alliances – spears for the British King so that he could fight the French - Learned new skills (NSW) 2. Literacy - Missionaries developed the Maori written language Sent Maori over to Oxford to help develop the language Not all good though – Diseases  Venereal - Thriving sex industry - Women were also able to have relations with Sailors to gain things for their tribes - Captain Cook tried to ban his Sailors - Many women became infertile and birth rates began to drop slightly  Typhoid and measles  Influenza (1890-94, 1918)  Small pox (1913) Shift in beliefs  Crisis led to conversion  Adaptions on Christianity Undermining of Maori land ‘ownership’  To be able to produce an economy you need land, but slowly land ownership became undermined  Therefore all the resources began to disappear The Ugly Maori had no laws –  Prostitution  Lawlessness - It was deemed the hell hole of the pacific This is when Maori began to say that they needed support and perhaps look to introducing a government structure that will help getting the thing under control  Introduction of Muskets - Huge effect on Maori - Tribal Boundaries  Estimate population decline - At around 200,000 in 1780 (and this might even be a bit low because he did not get inland enough) - In 1858 – 56,049 and yet to feel the impact of the influenza and epidemics Therefore Maori were extremely close to dying Lecture 12 – 21 August 2012 Dr Lynn: The Treaty of Waitangi Early Interactions Increase in European settlement from 1800  Settlers and whalers  SLIDEs  They were very influential in the early engagement with Maori  Traders came through as a response to that – some of the whalers became traders through making whale boats and selling them to Maori  A lot of these traders returned back to where they were from or they married Maori wives Marsden – first person to preach a Christian Service in NZ in Northland  Also took Maori to work on his farms in Parramatta in Sydney to learn the various skills  Once the rest of the world was opened up to them they travelled extensively  Maori had trading ships – traded as far afield as California Therefore there was a lot of things happening around the Treaty Signing Hongi hika  Other members of Maori went around  Many found that they could not settle  Mostly ideas came back and in Hongi hika’s case muskets came back Musket Wars  Violent  Some sides had muskets, some did not  The missionaries were openly against supplying muskets to Maori, but some actually supplied them  Satisfied conversions to Christian Faith  Muskets were responsible for massive Maori demographic changes in the 1820’s Te Rauparaha  Catalyst that allowed for Busby to come to NZ  Powerful leader by the time he had established himself around Kapiti Island  Moved his people south and established around the Wellington area  Kapiti Island became his strong hold and there are still descendants out there who have land there IMP: Mission to wipe Kai Tahu from the face of the earth - Following a major insult that was leveled against him and he was defending his honour - Several forays into the South Island, and almost achieved his aim but he needed to conquer the main trading point near Christchurch – Kaiapoi - His last attempt was to move into Akaroa area - To do this he enlisted the help of the captain and crew of a boat called Elizabeth The very fact that Pakeha had become involved in local maori wars was seen as a good movement the captainand crew were arrested but esaped. Therefore TR had an impact on Ngai tahu and the situation between settlers and Maori at the time. James Busby  Appointed British Resident  Race relations conciliator – brought in to protect the settlers and ensure that Maori were not being detrimentally affected  Busby had some bitterness towards British people and the Crown – he was very pro- Maori and active in ensuring that they remained dominant and in a dominant position  He was keen to get one back for what had happened to his own people in Scotland Declaration of Independence 1835 - Helped Maori to draft the declaration and present it to the Kind in England - He was at the mercy of how well he managed his relationships with the Maori  He was sympathetic to Maori causes – and maintaining their position in NZ. Precursor to the declaration – Because NZ was not a colony it was not recognised as a colony, therefore all the whale products, and the flax would be shipped into Australia, and relabeled then shipped to England. Therefore when NZ ships went into Australian harbours they were not recognised, therefore Busby helped Maori to select a flag, which came alongside the declaration of independence and allowed ships to sail under the name NZ. Note this has been modified for Maori Womens Welfare Flag = The United Tribes Flag – 1835 Causes of the declaration of independence – (1) NZ was resource rich thus it was sought after by the other colonizing countries such as France, US, Portugal - NZ was the next major area - Important things were flax and trees both of these were used and sought after - French had been in NZ, particularly in Akaroa (2) Threat by France - Colonies - Religion – predominantly Catholic against the missionaries religion - This is evident today is Hokianga (3) Hui – 1834 to choose a flag (4) 1835: Declaration of independence - IMP recognised NZ as a Maori Nation State - Ratified by the Crown Therefore the sovereignty of the Maori chiefs was recognised and NZ was recognised as being Maori. It had particular importance when the Treaty became more influential. Maori referred to 3 documents indicating absolute sovereignty (a) Declaration (b) Treaty (c) Clauses in the NZ ….Act These three documents have been seen as important and working together for this sovereignty March Towards Te Tiriti  Busby reports tribal fighting 1836-1837 Bay of Islands  Missionaries within New Zealand send reports back to England about fighting  May 1837 Captain Hobson sent by Governor Bourke of New South Wales to report on the situation  Hobson in a report to Governor Bourke recommended the establishment of factories (trading posts) and a treaty to guarantee land holdings for the factories  1838 Lord Glenelg appoints Hobson consul to New Zealand  1839 Lord Normanby approves Hobson as consul, then lieutenant governor. The Declaration of Independence is affirmed.  1839 (new) Governor Gipps of NSW issues instructions to Hobson  January 1840 Hobson sails to New Zealand  English Ratified it and it was agreed that Maori had sovereignty here – the treaty could be formed - Recognised that the Chiefs of the United Tribes were people that had the authority to have the treaty with  Tribal fighting was increasing and missionaries were sending reports back about the fights and talking about needing some kind of law or formal agreement  Development of the NZ Company – grew interested in NZ because there was a lot of land there, regardless that Maori had not sold the land to them did not stop them  Missionaries and other early settlers had been given land by Maori  NZ company wanted to get their settlers out there, because they were worried that they would no longer make money from those lands  People were concerned that if a treaty was signed then they would lose their claims to land – Northland and Hawkes bay Therefore land was becoming an issue and forcing the British Crown to declare NZ as a British Colony, therefore by 1839 Hobson was appointed as the Consul and British Governor. With the affirmation of the Declaration of Independence is affirmed and Hobson set sail for NZ. Hobson Arrives in NZ  29 January 1840 – Bay of Islands - Met with Busby, Charles Baker, and William Colenso  Hobson discusses instructions received from Lord Normanby  Hobson drafts an invitation to chiefs. Gives this to Busby who gives it to Colenso to translate and to print  Invitations are also sent to the settlers of the area to meet with Hobson the next day He had only highlighted the key points that needed to be in the treaty therefore it was Busby, Baker and Colenso who drafted the treaty. There was a lot of interest and a lot of buzz about what this treaty is going to do and what it means for the Maori. Two drafts – (1) English (2) Maori Plus there was more than one copy of each. Maori predominantly signed the Maori version and 30-50 signed the English version. 5 February Meeting  Missionaries had to translate and inform  Chiefs were negative at first because they did not understand what the British Crown wanted  Some did not want to sign because they were worried that they were signing away their mana  BUT – many people were swayed when Hone Heke, Tamati Waka Nene, and Patuone spoke in favour of the Treaty. 6 February 1840 – 43 chiefs signed Treaty of Waitangi  Hone Heke (alias Wiremu Pokai) was reputed to have been the first to sign the Māori version.  505 sign the Māori version  39 sign an English Version at Waikato Heads. Maori and English Version 1. Preamble 2. Article I 3. Article II 4. Article III PLUS: some commentator’s talk about the fourth article this is a verbal assurance that religious practices and preferences would be upheld. This is important because Maori is an oral culture. Article I Maori Version English Version Chiefs gave the Queen kawanatanga Chiefs gave the queen sovereignty This does not translate directly as sovereignty “Kawana” word for governor, and Maori understood it as that because of the translated bible i.e. it was about governance over the land Thought they were looking after their people Article 2 Maori Version English Version Guarantees lands all properties, pieces, Guarantees the chiefs and their respective language, vital to Maori society families and individuals “full exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests fisheries and other properties Most of the claims to the Waitangi tribunal is under article two This is must more explicit than the Maori Version Article 3 Maori Version English Version Queen extended to the Natives her royal protection and imparts to them all the rights and privileges of British subjects This has been interpreted that Maori have got British Citizenship – this was an advancement See Dame Claudia Orange – some commentators talk about a fourth article Te Wherowhero REFUSED = Waikato Chief  Approached to be the new Maori King because he could connect all groups and connect them  HE was important and wanted him alongside  He never signed the treaty – the claims are direct negotiation with the Crown because they are not treaty signatories. Tauranga Chiefs – signed  Saw it as a mechanism towards allowing them to continue as they were  Willing to sign in exchange for gifts like red blankets and tobacco Otago Chiefs – signed Southland  Chiefs: - Taiaroa - Karetai - Korako  Conditions on the back that Ruapuke Island is not subject to the Treaty  Off the coast of bluff – this has been respected and is still held amongst families  Seen as a positive to open up their economic development Therefore it was seen as a good and bad thing – MAJOR POINTS ABOUT THE TREATY 1. The treaty is in two languages - Interpretation problems 2. Treaty is valid law
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